Eritrea is surrounded by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south and Djibouti in the southeast. The east and northeast of the country extend along the coast of the Red Sea. It is located directly opposite Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
The Eritrean territory extends for about 950 km from Kasar Cape to the Dumeira Cape in the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait. The Dahlak Islands also belong to Eritrea. The northern extension of the Ethiopian high plateau, surrounded by low plains in the east and west, enters the Eritrean territory. The eastern plain is about 16-80 km wide and covers the Danakil region and the northern edge of the Kobar Pit, which is 116 m below sea level. The plateau with a gentle slope in the west is fragmented by stream valleys that flow westward.
Eritrea is the State with a one-party system called the People’s Justice and Democracy Party (PFDJ). Even if the multi-party policy was adopted by 1997 laws, there is no other political group for the organization. The chair of the 150 parliamentary seats, of which 75 were the candidates of the EPLF guerrilla members and more or less opposed to the regime, were shaped by Isaias Afewerki, the “elected” president, shortly after the independence of 1993. The structure was never announced by the head of the provisional government. National elections were scheduled at the time and canceled; it never occupied the country’s agenda. The independent local resources of political advisers of Eritrean domestic politicians are scarce; In September 2001, the government closed all its national media outlets and those who publicly criticized the government was arrested.
Eritrea has a tropical monsoon climate. Eritrea, which is similar to the Ethiopian climate, has a more temperate and rainier climate than Ethiopia. The country’s climate varies in high areas and low areas. High areas are rainy and cold in the country. The coldest months in the high areas are between December and February. May is the hottest month. In low areas, the air temperature is between 25 degrees and 32 degrees between October and May and it is a rainy period. Between June and September, it reaches temperatures up to 40 degrees. It is generally over 30 degrees and has less rainfall.
50% of the population is Sunni Muslims. Christians and communities belonging to local religions constitute 50 percent of the population and live together in Eritrea.
Industry and Tourism
Eritrean economy is based on agriculture and animal husbandry. Most of the population lives in rural areas, most of them engaged in animal husbandry. Two-thirds of those living in rural areas have settled or semi-resident life and the rest is nomadic. The country’s industry is very backward. The country’s export products are bovine, textile, food products. Export partners are Italy, USA, and Belarus. Import products are machinery, petroleum products, food, industrial goods. Import partners are Germany, Italy, and France.
The most popular sports in Eritrea are football and cycling. In the following years, Eritrean athletes are exhibiting in international competitions.
Almost the only bike race on the African continent is a race from Massawa’s hot desert beaches to the winding high cliff mountains, from there to the valleys and steep cliffs, then to the capital Asmara. From there, it continues down to Gash-Barka Region plains. Going back to Asmara is only from the south. In this long-distance, very popular sport in Eritrea, fans (spectators) form long queues throughout the race. Zersenay Tadesse and Mebrahtom (Meb) Keflezighi can be shown as the best athletes in the long distance run in Eritrea. Both are Olympic.
- Population: 5,265,078
- Population Density: 53 per Km2
- Land Area: 101,000 Km2