Its official name is the Republic of Djibouti. A small country in East Africa. Neighbors are Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, Somalia in the southeast. There is a coast to the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. It is 20 kilometers away from Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula. Its capital city is Djibouti.
Although Djibouti has a small surface area of 23,200 km², it has three different physical structures. The coastal zone and the high plateau region distinguish the mountainous region with the highest point of 1500 m. The plateau region is divided by deep valleys. There are two lakes on Hanle Plain, which appear to have been a result of a collapse in Djibouti, where the rivers do not exist. The lakes called Alalı and Assal are the salt lake, of which the Assal is 150 meters below the sea level.
In Djibouti, a seemingly multi-party democratic system prevails. However, the administration restricted political freedoms to a great extent. 51% of the people did not participate in the general elections held in December 1992 on the grounds that it was not fair. The ruling party won 75% of the vote and won all of the members in parliament.
The head of state is the president. The head of the government is the prime minister. According to the Constitution, the president should be from the Issa and the prime minister from the Afar. There is a 65-member legislative assembly (National Assembly) whose members are determined by general elections.
The present constitution was put into force on 4 September 1992.
The legal system consists of the mix of Islamic law, the French Civil Code and Djibouti peoples’ tradition.
The country is a member of international organizations such as Djibouti, UN, OIC (Organization of Islamic Conference), Arab League, African Union Organization, Gulf Cooperation Council, African Antilles, and Pacific Convention, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Islamic Development Bank.
In Djibouti, which has a hot and dry climate, the average annual temperature is around 32 ° C. The precipitation is slightly higher in the mountainous regions than in the coastal region. The average annual rainfall is 130 mm in the coastline and 500 mm in the mountainous region.
Djibouti has no official religion. However, 94.5% of the population is Muslim. Muslims are Sunni Shafi’i. The majority of the remaining population consists of Christians of European origin. There are a few Afar people who maintain their traditional religions.
Industry and Tourism
Djibouti’s economy is mostly based on trade and revenues from transport services. The railroad from Djibouti to Addis Ababa gives importance to the port of Djibouti.
This railway links the port of Djibouti with Ethiopia and some Central African countries. In addition, the creation of a free commercial zone around the port of Djibouti has brought commercial and touristic importance to the city.
The port of Djibouti is also used as a port of supply by ships using the Red Sea and Suez canal roads. Therefore, the port of Djibouti is an important source of income for the country’s economy. The share of income from trade and transportation services in gross domestic product reaches 48%.
Agricultural land constitutes only 1% of the territory of the country. Therefore, agriculture has not developed in this country. Income from agriculture is only 1% of the national income. The most commonly produced agricultural products are palm, corn and various vegetables and fruits. Agricultural products meet only 3% of the country’s need. In 1992, 22 thousand tons of vegetables were produced.
A quarter of the Djibouti people live with nomadic livestock. Therefore, the livestock sector is good. According to the figures of 1992, there are 180 thousand cattle and 450 thousand sheep in the country. Some of the people living on the coast are living with fishing. But fishing is not good.
In 1991, 400 tons of fish and seafood were hunted. Management is trying to develop the fishing industry. Fish production currently only covers domestic consumption.
The War of Ogaden, which took place between Ethiopia and Somalia in 1977 – 78, significantly affected the economy of Djibouti.
- Population: 980,498
- Population Density: 43 per Km2
- Land Area: 23,180 Km2