What is the Capital of Djibouti?

Djibouti City is the capital of Djibouti. The city is located near the world’s busiest shipping lanes.

A map showing the Horn of Africa region with countries Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Somalia highlighted in different colors.
Djibouti city on the map of Djibouti showing the neighboring countries.

Djibouti City is known for its eclectic mix of cultures and traditions reflected in its architecture, cuisine, and language. The city has diverse ethnic groups, including Somalis, Afars, and French residents.

Where is Djibouti City?

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Close-up location of Djibouti City

Djibouti City is located in the Horn of Africa, on the southeastern coast of Djibouti, in the Djibouti Region. It is situated at the junction of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, specifically at the southern entrance to the Red Sea.

This puts it in the easternmost part of Africa, approximately 11.6 degrees north of the equator and 43.2 degrees east of the prime meridian. The city is on the Gulf of Tadjoura, which branches off the Gulf of Aden to the east of the city.

The strategic location of Djibouti City has made it a significant refueling and transshipment center. It also hosts several foreign military bases due to its geopolitical significance.

History of Djibouti City

Djibouti City’s history can be traced back to the prehistoric period, as archaeological evidence suggests that the area has been inhabited since at least the Neolithic era. It became a trading post in the 19th century when the French chose it as a colonial outpost due to its strategic location at the mouth of the Red Sea.

Here are some critical periods and events that have shaped Djibouti City:

The French signed treaties with Somali sultans, allowing them to settle in the region. Initially named “French Somaliland,” the settlement grew around what is now known as Djibouti City.

The area was officially declared a French colony, with Djibouti City as the administrative and commercial center. The city developed rapidly after completing the Djibouti-Addis Ababa Railway in 1917.

As part of French Somaliland, Djibouti City remained under Vichy French control until 1942, when British and Free French forces occupied it.

Djibouti post-referendum demonstration in 1967
Djibouti post-referendum demonstration in 1967.

Djibouti City became the capital of French Somaliland in 1891. French Somaliland was the name of the region under French control from 1896 to 1967. After a series of changes and a transition period, Djibouti gained independence in 1977 and Djibouti City became the capital of the newly independent nation.

Following a referendum, the colony changed to the French Territory of the Afars and Issas. Around this time, Djibouti City experienced significant social and political changes, eventually leading to independence.

Djibouti gained independence from France, and Djibouti City became the new nation’s capital. Since then, it has remained the country’s political, economic, and cultural hub.

Features of Djibouti City

Boulevard de la Republique, the busiest streets in Djibouti
Aerial view of Boulevard de la Republique, the busiest street in Djibouti.

Djibouti City is a vibrant and unique city blending African, Arabian, and European influences. Djibouti City sits at the crossroads of one of the most transited lanes in the world, connecting Europe, the Far East, and the Horn of Africa. This has made it an important commercial intersection and a significant refueling and transshipment center.

Geography and Climate

Djibouti City aerial view
Djibouti City aerial view

Djibouti City is relatively low-lying, with slight undulations and plateaus characterizing much of the region’s topography. Its coastal position influences much of its climate and geography.

The climate of Djibouti City is arid and hot, falling under the hot desert climate category (Köppen climate classification: BWh) and making it one of the hottest countries on earth.

Temperatures are high throughout the year, with averages ranging between 25 °C (77 °F) and 40 °C (104 °F), though extreme highs can reach up to 50 °C (122 °F). Rainfall is scarce, typically falling in heavy bursts during the short rainy season.


Locals commuting on the streets of Djibouti City
Locals commuting on the streets of Djibouti City.

Djibouti City has a population of over 600,000, which makes up more than half of the country’s total population. The city is ethnically diverse, with Somalis (specifically the Issa Somali clan) and Afars being the majority groups.

There are also smaller communities of Europeans (mostly French and Italians), Arabs, and Ethiopians. The city is predominantly Muslim, with Islam being the state religion of Djibouti.


Port of Djibouti, the most significant economy sector in Djibouti
Port of Djibouti, which port-related services sector accounts for over 80% of the country’s GDP.

The economy of Djibouti City is primarily based on service activities connected with the city’s status as the country’s principal maritime port for imports, exports, and refueling. The Port of Djibouti is one of the region’s largest and most important ports, playing a vital role in the economy.

The city is also a hub for the country’s telecommunications and transportation industries. It has attracted foreign direct investment recently due to its strategic location and free-trade agreements.

Djibouti City is increasingly becoming a transshipment point, banking, and financial corner for the region, contributing to economic growth.
Moreover, several foreign military bases in the country, including American and French bases, contribute significantly to the local economy and made Djibouti one of the richest countries in Africa.

Today, Djibouti City and the country have been trying to diversify the economy and reduce reliance on port activities.

Things to Do and Places to See in Djibouti City

1. Explore the Old Town of Djibouti

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Djibouti Old Town is a fascinating place representing the country’s cultural and colonial past.

Also known as the European Quarter, the Old Town of Djibouti blends different cultures and eras. Its narrow, winding streets are lined with buildings that reflect French colonial architecture, traditional Somali influences, and Arabic elements.

The old town is the beating heart of Djibouti City and provides a glimpse into the past. Walking through its labyrinthine alleyways, you’ll discover a range of shops selling traditional crafts, aromatic spices, and vibrant textiles.

2. Take a Dolphin Excursion

Djibouti City offers unforgettable experiences with its diverse marine life. One of the must-do activities is going on a dolphin excursion. Djibouti is home to several dolphin species, including the Spinner and Bottlenose dolphins.

These excursions are conducted with experienced local guides who can help you spot these playful creatures in their natural habitat. Depending on the time of year, you might even witness the incredible spectacle of dolphins leaping out of the water in synchronized acrobatics.

3. Visit the Hamoudi Mosque

Hamoudi Mosque in Djibouti
Hamoudi Mosque in Djibouti

Known as one of Djibouti’s oldest and most significant religious structures, the Hamoudi Mosque stands as a beacon of the city’s affluent Islamic heritage.

This striking structure, with its distinctive whitewashed walls and towering minaret, offers a serene environment amidst the bustling city. Although non-Muslim visitors may not be allowed inside, the beautiful exterior architecture alone is worth the visit.

4. Relax at the Khor Ambado

Beaches of Khor Amado
The beaches of Khor Ambado serve as nesting sites for several species of sea turtles.

Just a short drive from Djibouti City, Khor Ambado Beach is a slice of paradise on the Red Sea. The beach boasts golden sands, crystal-clear waters, and a vibrant coral reef perfect for snorkeling. The beach is well-equipped with facilities, including restaurants serving fresh seafood.

Whether you want to soak up the sun, enjoy a refreshing swim, or explore the underwater world, Khor Ambado offers a perfect escape from the city’s hustle and bustle.

The area around Khor Ambado boasts unique flora and fauna adapted to the arid conditions. If lucky, you might spot desert antelopes or birds native to the region.

5. Take a Boat Ride (Gulf of Tadjoura)

Aerial view of Arta Region in Gulf of Tadjoura
Aerial view of the Arta Region in the Gulf of Tadjoura

A boat ride across the Gulf of Tadjoura offers stunning views of Djibouti City and the surrounding coastal landscapes. The gulf is renowned for its rich biodiversity, including various fish species, sea turtles, and, occasionally, dolphins. Boat rides can range from leisurely tours to exciting fishing trips, providing different experiences depending on your preference.

Many boat tours include a stopover at Moucha Island. Visitors can snorkel, relax on the beach, or explore the island’s wildlife. Bird enthusiasts will especially appreciate the region’s diverse birdlife, with many species migrating through this area.

6. Visit Lake Assal

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Lake Assal is the lowest point in Africa, sitting 155 meters (509 feet) below sea level.

About a two-hour drive from Djibouti City lies Lake Assal. Lake Assal’s vast white salt pans create an otherworldly landscape, contrasting beautifully with the surrounding black volcanic mountains and the lake’s azure waters. Locals have harvested the salt from Lake Assal for centuries, and it is often available for purchase as a unique souvenir.

Lake Assal is situated in a volcanic setting within the Danakil Depression. The region is known for its intense heat and harsh environment but has a stark beauty.

Despite the extreme conditions, Lake Assal hosts some life forms, including small fish species and bacteria that can withstand high salinity.

7. Visit Moucha Island

Moucha Island near Djibouti
Moucha Island near Djibouti

A boat ride away from Djibouti City, Moucha Island is an untouched haven known for its stunning beaches and vibrant marine life. Moucha Island is a tropical paradise, boasting pristine beaches, clear turquoise waters, and diverse marine life. It’s also known for its birdlife, and birdwatchers may spot various species of sea and shorebirds.

Efforts have been made to preserve the natural environment of Moucha Island and its surrounding waters. Visitors are encouraged to respect the environment and not to interfere with the wildlife.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the best time to visit Djibouti City?

The best time to visit Djibouti City is during the cooler months, from November to early April when the temperatures are more tolerable.

What languages are spoken in Djibouti City?

The official languages are Arabic and French, but Somali and Afar are also widely spoken.

What currency is used in Djibouti?

The currency of Djibouti is the Djiboutian franc.

What can I buy in Djibouti City?

In the markets of Djibouti City, you can buy various goods ranging from traditional clothing, spices, and handwoven baskets to salt from Lake Assal.

Is it expensive to visit Djibouti City?

Due to the high food and accommodation costs, Djibouti is relatively more expensive than its African neighbors.

What are the main attractions in Djibouti City?

The main attractions include the Central Market, Hamoudi Mosque, and the European Quarter. Other attractions like Lake Assal and Khor Ambado Beach have located a short distance from the city.

Can I see wildlife in or near Djibouti City?

Djibouti is known for its marine life, including dolphins, whale sharks (usually seen between November and February), and various fish species around Moucha Island. The Day Forest National Park, Djibouti’s only national park, is also home to multiple species of fauna.

What is traditional food like in Djibouti City?

The food in Djibouti City is a mix of Somali, Afar, Yemeni, and French influences. Traditional dishes often consist of grilled meat, lentils, and various types of bread. The city is also known for its fresh seafood.

What cultural customs should I be aware of when visiting Djibouti City?

Djibouti visitors should respect local customs and traditions. This includes dressing modestly, especially when visiting religious sites, and avoiding public displays of affection. During Ramadan, eating, drinking, and smoking in public during daylight hours should be avoided.

Final Thoughts

With its prosperous cultural tapestry, unique natural attractions, and vibrant city life, Djibouti City offers a different travel experience. Its coastal position grants access to breathtaking marine experiences and beach activities, while the proximity to unique geological features like Lake Assal adds another layer to its allure.

While it may not yet be on many mainstream tourist radars, Djibouti City holds a certain charm that makes it well worth visiting for those seeking something a little off the beaten track.

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