Switzerland is a country in Central Europe, and it is the confederation that was formedby the assembly of 25 provinces. It is the most mountainous country among the countries in Europe.
Approximately 60% of the land consists of mountains. Particularly the Alps cover a large part of the country, while the Jura region occupies an important place in the territory of the country.
The country which is a tourism paradise does not have coast to sea but there are many lakes. Among the European countries is the country with the most lake with 1500 lakes. It is also known as a center of attraction and a tourism paradise.
Germany is in the north, Austria and Liechtenstein in the east, Italy in the south, and France in the west.
Political Map of Switzerland
Switzerland is the most mountainous country in Europe, while the Jura mountains are located along the border of France in the north-western part, while the Alps are located in the southern part. Mitteland plateau divides these mountains. The highest peak is Matterhorn at 4478 meters. Among the highest peaks in the Alps are 4274 meters with Finsteraarrhorn and 4166 meters with Jungfrau. Two major rivers in Europe are also emerging from the Swiss Alps. There are many lakes in the country and Lake Constance is the largest. Important lakes include Leman, Lucerne, Neuchatel, and Zürich.
The foundation of the Swiss Confederation was laid by an agreement in 1291 that stipulates solidarity with the Habsburg dynasty among three German-speaking regional communities. The number of members of the Confederation formed in 1353 with the participation of this triple league, then 5 cantons rose to 13 cantons in the early 16th century and the Confederation realized its independence against the German Empire with the Peace of 1648 Westphalia.
During the French occupation following the French Revolution, in 1798 the Republic of Helvetia was established with 19 cantons.
After the fall of Napoleon, in 1815 the Confederation of sovereign states was formed with 22 cantons, and in the same year, the Vienna Congress was considered neutral.
With the Constitution of 1848, the present Confederation was established, and in 1874, the Constitution was adopted which was valid until the 1990s. Switzerland adopted secularism in 1909 and the Civil Law in 1912.
Today Switzerland has a total of 26 cantons.
The climate of the country is quite varied, the warmth in the Ticino Canton, the aridity in the Rhetia Alps despite the fact that the weather is clear, and the Mediterranean climate in the Lugano and Maggiore Lakes. The tops of the mountains remain covered with snow all year round. In summer the temperature rises up to 27 degrees and in winter months it drops below the ‘0’ level.
49% of the population are Christian, 47% are Protestant and the rest are Catholic.
Industry and Tourism
Approximately 40% of the workforce in the country works in the industry. Especially the steel industry is operating more widely. Turbines, locomotives, machinery and heavy industrial products are manufactured and the production of optical scientific instruments, electric machines are important for the country’s industry. The pharmaceutical and chemical industry in the country has also developed and contributes economically to the country. The watchmaking industry is well-known in the country and the Swiss watches are very famous.
In the 16th century, the art of painting in Switzerland was heavily influenced by Protestantism. Since then, several Swiss artists have achieved international success. Johann Heinrich Füssli was famous for the grotesque-fantastic paintings he made in the 18th century with Henry Fuseli in England. The names of Arnold Böcklin, Albert Anker and Ferdinand Hodler are among the artists who made their name in the 19th century. In the 20th century, Alberto Giacometti became an international name. Jean Tinguely influenced the world of art with moving and complex sculptures made from old metals. Johannes Itten’s work on color and his teaching also came to the forefront in the art world.
Skiing, snowboarding and mountaineering are the most famous sports in Switzerland, and the nature of the country is quite convenient for such activities. Population: 8,582,250 Population Density: 218 per Km2 Land Area: 39,516 Km ²
What is the Official Language of Switzerland?
There are four official languages in Switzerland. The first and the most common are German. German is spoken by 63 percent of the population. This is followed by French in 22 percent. In addition to French, which is usually spoken in the west of the country, Italian has an 8% share. Another official language is Romansh spoken in the canton of Graubünden in the southeast of the country. The federal government must also use four official languages. In the Federal Assembly, simultaneous translation is done in these four languages.
The German dialect group spoken in Switzerland is generally called Swiss German. However, the standard High German is used in written communication and radio-television broadcasting. Similarly, the Swiss-French and Ticino dialects are used in other parts of Switzerland. In addition, official languages borrowed some terms that were not understood in other languages from Switzerland, as well as the use of similar words in other languages. Each Swiss has to learn one of the official languages of Switzerland in the school, other than their native language. Most Swiss people know at least two languages.
Swiss German is the name of the German dialect spoken in the German cantons of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. The language of writing is German. Swiss German and Standard Swiss German should not be confused. In Swiss German, each dialect has its own words. The Germans often have difficulty understanding the Germans. The reason is that most of the words are French and Italian. On the other hand, it is observed that attempts to create a written Swiss German have increased in recent years.
Swiss French is French known as Romandy in Switzerland. French is one of Switzerland’s four official languages, and by 2015, about 2 million people in the country speak French as their native language. The French spoken in Switzerland is very similar to that of France or Belgium and has only minor and often lexical differences.
What is the Currency of Switzerland?
What is the currency of Switzerland?
The Swiss currency is the Swiss franc. It is the currency used in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. The Swiss franc, released by the Swiss National Bank, is the single and last franc currency in Europe after the transition to the euro. The international short code is CHF, which stands for Confederatio Helvetica Franc. Swiss franc’s symbol is F.
The Swiss franc is also used as the reserve currency in the world. The share in reserve currencies in 2007 was 0.2%. The Swiss franc has been seen as a safe haven by investors throughout history. The reason for this is the large gold reserve in Switzerland.
The lower currency of Swiss franc is Rappen. Switzerland is not a European Union country and does not use Euro because it is not included in the European Union. Swiss franc, which is famous for its banks, is one of the most valuable currency in the world. With one of the world’s most valuable currencies, Switzerland is also one of the most expensive countries in the world.
Coins and Banknotes
- Coins: 1 Rappen, 2 Rappen, 5 Rappen, 10 Rappen, 20 Rappen, 1/2 Franc, 1 Franc, 2 Franc, 5 Franc.
- Banknotes: 10 Franc , 20 Franc, 50 Franc, 100 Franc, 200 Franc and 1000 Franc.