What is the Capital of Cyprus?

Nicosia is the capital city of Cyprus. It is the last divided capital in the world, separated into the Northern and Southern parts by a buffer zone controlled by the United Nations.

Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus
Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus.

Nicosia’s rich history spanning multiple centuries and cultures symbolizes Cyprus’s past struggles and hopes for reunification and peace.

Where is Nicosia?

Close-up location of Nicosia in the heart of Cyprus
Close-up location of Nicosia in the heart of Cyprus.

Nicosia is located in the center of the island of Cyprus. It sits roughly in the middle of the island, serving as Cyprus’s administrative and political hub. Globally, Nicosia Nicosia is situated in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea.

Nicosia is situated at roughly 35 degrees north latitude, which places it in the northern hemisphere. It also lies between 33 and 34 degrees east longitude.

The city is approximately 60 miles (97 kilometers) southwest of the southern coast of Turkey and around 400 miles (644 kilometers) east of mainland Greece. Its centralized location in the Mediterranean has historically made it a focal point.

History of Nicosia

Nicosia has a long and complex history that reflects the island’s strategic importance. Although Nicosia wasn’t a significant city-state during ancient times, it was part of the Mediterranean’s broader cultural and trade networks.

While larger centers like Paphos and Salamis dominated the landscape, Nicosia had its localized significance. The city was considered a settlement influenced by Greek and Phoenician civilizations, serving as a minor trade and agricultural hub.

St. John Cathedral, built in the 17th century
St. John Cathedral, built in the 17th century, houses frescoes that depict biblical scenes, providing a glimpse into the religious history of Nicosia.

Nicosia gained strategic importance during the Byzantine Era, partly because of its central location on the island. The Byzantines fortified the city as a bulwark against potential invasions, mainly from Arab forces.

Churches were built, and the city became a Christian learning and theology center. The island’s administration was increasingly centralized in Nicosia, further enhancing its importance within the Byzantine realm.

Famagusta Gate, one of the original entrances through the Venetian walls surrounding Nicosia
Famagusta Gate, one of the original entrances through the Venetian walls surrounding Nicosia.

When the Lusignan dynasty took over, Nicosia became the seat of the Kingdom of Cyprus. It flourished culturally and economically by constructing palaces, churches, and fortifications.

Subsequently, the Venetians took control and invested heavily in military architecture to defend against the Ottomans. Massive walls were built around Nicosia, featuring eleven bastions and three gates. The Venetian Walls still exist today and are one of the city’s landmarks.

The Ottomans captured Nicosia in 1571 following a lengthy siege that ultimately led to the city’s surrender. During Ottoman rule, the city underwent major social and architectural changes.

Selimiye Mosque, historically known as the Cathedral of Saint Sophia
Selimiye Mosque, historically known as the Cathedral of Saint Sophia, was converted into a mosque following the Ottoman conquest.

Many Christian churches were converted into mosques, and Ottoman-style buildings were constructed. The population diversified with the settlement of Turks, and the administrative structures were altered to fit the Ottoman millet system, which organized communities based on religion.

When Cyprus became a British colony, Nicosia was modernized in various ways. The British introduced new administrative and legal systems.

Infrastructure like roads, schools, and hospitals were developed, and the city grew in size and complexity. Nicosia served as the epicenter of the anti-colonial movement, which sought Cypriot self-determination and, ultimately, independence.

Court of Law in Nicosia: reflecting the colonial past of Cyprus, showcasing British architectural influence
Court of Law in Nicosia: reflecting the colonial past of Cyprus, showcasing British architectural influence in a city otherwise dominated by Mediterranean and Middle Eastern styles.

After gaining independence in 1960, Cyprus was gripped by ethnic tensions between Greek and Turkish Cypriots. Nicosia became a focal point of these tensions, exacerbated by disputes over governance and territory.

The Turkish invasion of 1974 resulted in the division of Nicosia along the Green Line, a partition still in place today. The Republic of Cyprus controls the southern part, while the northern area is under the administration of the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, recognized only by Turkey. Efforts for reunification have been ongoing, but a final settlement has remained elusive.

Features of Nicosia

Nicosia is a city of contrasts and convergence, where history and modernity coexist in a dynamic balance. A stroll through the city reveals a tale of two cities separated by the United Nations-controlled Green Line. This division adds a palpable tension and a sense of intrigue as one can walk from one political entity to another in minutes.

Architecturally, Nicosia is a living museum. It houses structures from various epochs, all testifying to its rich and tumultuous history. Yet, Nicosia is not just about the past; it’s a city that has adapted to the needs of the 21st century. It’s Cyprus’s economic and administrative heart, brimming with contemporary art galleries, restaurants offering a fusion of Mediterranean cuisines, and modern shopping centers.

Geography and Climate

Cityscape of Nicosia
Cityscape of Nicosia

Nicosia enjoys a hot semi-arid climate, typical of the eastern Mediterranean region. Summer temperatures can soar above 40°C (104 °F), while winters are milder, ranging from 8 °C to 16°C (46-61 °F). Rainfall is limited and usually occurs between November and March, averaging about 300-400 millimeters annually.

The scarcity of water resources has led to the construction of dams around the city. Surrounding the urban area, the landscape consists of arid plains and some low-lying hills. Agriculturally, the region around Nicosia is rich in olive groves and vineyards.


Pedestrians stroll through Ledra Street, the main shopping street
Pedestrians stroll through Ledra Street, the main shopping street, once a dividing line between the Turkish and Greek Cypriot communities.

The population of Nicosia stands at approximately 330,000 residents, with substantially more in the surrounding metro area. The city has a diverse demographic profile; while Greek Cypriots form the majority, there are also many Turkish Cypriots, particularly in the northern part of the city.

Additionally, the international community is growing, represented by British expatriates, students from around the globe, and migrants from countries like Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and various African nations. Multiple languages can be heard on the streets, from Greek and Turkish to English and Russian.

Religious diversity is also evident, with a mix of Orthodox Christian churches, Muslim mosques, and other places of worship.


Administrative Headquarters of the Bank of Cyprus Nicosia
Administrative Headquarters of the Bank of Cyprus Nicosia.

Nicosia is Cyprus’s economy’s driving force, with its dominance most evident in the service sector. The city is a hub for financial services, hosting significant banks, insurance companies, and investment firms.

Administrative services, including government departments and foreign embassies, also play a key role in the city’s economy. In addition to finance and administration, education is a crucial industry; the University of Cyprus and other educational institutions attract local and international students.

These educational centers serve as catalysts for research, technology, and innovation. Meanwhile, tourism is an increasingly important sector. Visitors are drawn to Nicosia for its rich history and museums and as a starting point for exploring the rest of Cyprus.

Small and medium-sized enterprises in retail and hospitality also contribute to the local economy, making it well-rounded and resilient.

Things to Do and Places to See in Nicosia

Nicosia is teeming with diverse attractions and activities waiting to be explored. Let’s delve into some of the must-visit spots and experiences in the area.

1. Venetian Walls

Venetian wall fortifications encircling the old city of Nicosia
Venetian wall fortifications encircling the old city of Nicosia, built in the 16th century to fend off potential invaders.

The Venetian Walls of Nicosia is an enduring testament to the island’s rich and multifaceted history. Erected by the Venetians in the 16th century, these walls were designed to protect Nicosia and serve as a striking example of military architecture.

Visitors can stroll along parts of these ancient walls to better appreciate their scale and design. While the walls are remarkable, the area around them has been landscaped into pleasant gardens and public spaces. The bastions also offer panoramic views of the city, and occasional cultural events occur within the old gates, adding a contemporary layer to their long history.

2. The Cyprus Museum (Cyprus Archaeological Museum)

The Cyprus Museum, home to the most extensive collection of Cypriot antiquities
The Cyprus Museum, home to the most extensive collection of Cypriot antiquities, offering insights into the island’s rich archaeological heritage.

The Cyprus Museum, or the Cyprus Archaeological Museum, is a repository of the island’s ancient heritage. Located in Nicosia, it’s a must-visit for anyone interested in delving into Cyprus’ rich past.

Apart from showcasing fascinating artifacts, the Cyprus Museum offers educational programs and temporary exhibitions. Whether you’re a history buff or a casual visitor, the museum provides a deeper understanding of Cyprus’ complex cultural fabric.

Audio guides and informational plaques enrich the experience, making it educational and engaging.

3. The House of Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios

The House of Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios, an 18th-century mansion that once belonged to a prominent dragoman
The House of Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios, an 18th-century mansion that once belonged to a prominent dragoman.

The House of Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios played a significant role in local politics and cultural exchange. The house is an architectural gem, featuring intricate wooden balconies and beautifully decorated rooms. Each room serves as a testament to its former inhabitants’ eclectic tastes and multicultural influences.

Visitors can explore the mansion at their own pace, taking in the craftsmanship of its construction and the historical artifacts displayed within. Special guided tours and educational programs are available for those who wish to dig deeper into the social and political dynamics of 18th-century Cyprus. A visit to this house offers a nuanced understanding of the island’s colonial history and multicultural influences.

4. A. G. Leventis Gallery

A. G. Leventis Gallery, home to European art collections that showcase works spanning from the Renaissance to the 20th century
A. G. Leventis Gallery, home to European art collections that showcase works spanning from the Renaissance to the 20th century.

The A. G. Leventis Gallery is a beacon of art and culture in Nicosia. Established to house the Leventis Foundation’s art collection, the gallery has quickly become vital to the city’s cultural landscape. The gallery is divided into sections representing different eras and styles of European art, including the Renaissance, Baroque, and Modern periods.

Art enthusiasts and casual visitors will find the A. G. Leventis Gallery a rewarding experience. The gallery frequently hosts temporary exhibitions, lectures, and workshops, providing a dynamic and enriching visitor experience.

5. Bedesten

Bedesten, originally built as a Christian church
Bedesten, originally built as a Christian church, then converted into a marketplace, Bedesten reflects the multicultural tapestry of Nicosia.

Bedesten, originally a Christian church, has metamorphosed through the centuries. Today, it stands as a symbol of the city’s layered history and diverse cultural influences. The structure comprises a central hall surrounded by smaller chambers, embodying architectural features from its Christian and Ottoman phases.

Bedesten provides a multi-sensory experience where history and modernity merge. The venue frequently hosts art exhibitions, concerts, and other cultural activities, making it a dynamic space that offers something new with each visit.

6. Nicosia Municipal Theatre

Nicosia Municipal Theatre, opened in 1967, serves as a cultural venue
Nicosia Municipal Theatre, opened in 1967, serves as a cultural venue significant in developing performing arts in Cyprus.

The Nicosia Municipal Theatre features a classic architectural design, including a spacious auditorium and an ornate proscenium arch. The venue offers a diverse repertoire that ranges from classical plays to contemporary performances.

Whether you’re a theatre aficionado or a first-timer, the theatre is a must-visit. It offers an excellent opportunity to immerse in local culture through its wide array of performances. The venue also frequently collaborates with international theatre companies, providing a global perspective on the performing arts.

7. Buyuk Han

Buyuk Han, built in 1572, this caravanserai is one of the finest examples of Ottoman architecture in Cyprus
Buyuk Han, built in 1572, this caravanserai is one of Cyprus’s finest examples of Ottoman architecture.

Buyuk Han, or the “Great Inn,” is a remarkable example of Ottoman-era architecture and function. This historical complex was built shortly after the Ottoman conquest and intended to serve as an inn and marketplace for travelers and merchants.

Today, Buyuk Han is a bustling cultural center that houses artisan shops, galleries, and cafes. Visitors can shop for local handicrafts, enjoy traditional Cypriot cuisine, or participate in cultural events and workshops frequently held in the courtyard.

8. Hamam Omerye

Hamam Omerye, dating back to the 14th century
Hamam Omerye, dating back to the 14th century, this restored hammam serves as both a spa and a piece of living history.

Hamam Omerye offers an authentic Turkish bath experience set in a 14th-century building. The hamam combines historical architecture with the age-old tradition of communal bathing, making it an oasis of relaxation in Nicosia.

Visitors can expect a range of wellness treatments, including massages and exfoliation services, in addition to the traditional steam bath. It’s a must-visit for those looking to unwind and experience a slice of Ottoman culture in the city’s heart.

9. Kyrenia Gate

Kyrenia Gate, a major portal in the Venetian fortifications, served as the key northern gateway out of the city
Kyrenia Gate, a major portal in the Venetian fortifications, served as the key northern gateway out of the city.

Kyrenia Gate is a historical marker and a point of interest in Nicosia. The gate has a vaulted passageway that leads to a chamber adorned with historical plaques. The structure’s design embodies Venetian military architecture, featuring thick walls and watchtowers to keep a vigilant eye on incoming traffic.

Today, the gate often hosts temporary exhibitions and serves as a starting point for guided city tours. Its historical significance and role in the city’s past make it a compelling stop for history enthusiasts and casual visitors.

10. Eleftheria Square

Eleftheria Square, designed by celebrated architect Zaha Hadid
Eleftheria Square, designed by celebrated architect Zaha Hadid.

Eleftheria Square, or “Freedom Square,” is a modern public space that serves as a focal point where the city’s historical past and vibrant present converge. The square features undulating surfaces, reflecting pools, and pedestrian walkways, all crafted to create a sense of flow and openness.

The square is often a public event, concert, and art installation venue. Its design encourages social interaction, making it a lively spot for locals and tourists. Whether you want to engage with the community, enjoy some outdoor art, or take in the atmosphere, Eleftheria Square offers a unique and modern experience in Nicosia.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the best time to visit Nicosia?

The most favorable time to visit is from late spring to early autumn when the weather is warm and sunny.

Is Nicosia safe for tourists?

Nicosia is generally a safe destination for tourists, with crime against visitors being relatively uncommon. However, it’s essential to exercise sensible precautions. Keep passports, money, and other valuables in a secure location. If you take all precautionary measures into account, you can expect a safe and enjoyable stay.

What currency is used?

The Euro (€) is the official currency in the southern part of Nicosia, while the Turkish Lira (₺) is used in the northern part.

How do I get around the city?

Public buses, taxis, and walking are common ways to explore Nicosia. A rental car is also an option for more freedom of movement.

Are there any border controls within the city?

Yes, Nicosia is divided between the Republic of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus. Passport checks are conducted at crossing points.

What are some local foods to try?

Don’t miss out on local dishes like halloumi cheese, souvla, and moussaka.

Is tap water safe to drink?

Tap water is considered safe to drink, but many tourists prefer to consume bottled water.

Can I take day trips to nearby beaches?

Yes, some of the best beaches on the island are within a 30-50 km range, easily accessible for a day trip.

Final Thoughts

Nicosia is worth a visit for a multitude of reasons. As a city steeped in history yet pulsing with modern life, it offers a unique blend of ancient artifacts, contemporary art, and bustling commerce. Nicosia has something for everyone, whether you’re interested in historical exploration, shopping for local crafts, or savoring Cypriot cuisine.

Its central location also makes it a convenient launching point for beach excursions. The city manages to captivate its visitors with its unique charm and multifaceted personality, making it an enriching travel destination.

Image Sources and Copyright Information
  • Map of Cyprus Highlighting Capital Nicosia: © Peter Hermes Furian/Shutterstock
  • Location Pin on Nicosia Map: © PredragLasica/Shutterstock
  • Visitors Outside Historic Cathedral on Sunny Day: © Zakhar Mar/Shutterstock
  • Famagusta Gate in Nicosia, Cyprus: © trabantos/Shutterstock
  • Exterior View of Selimiye Mosque under Clear Sky: © Cem OZER/Shutterstock
  • Sunny Day at Nicosia Law Courts Building: © Aliaksandr Antanovich/Shutterstock
  • Aerial View of Nicosia Cityscape: © trabantos/Shutterstock
  • Bustling Pedestrian Street with Shops and Cafés: © FrimuFilms/Shutterstock
  • Government Building in Nicosia: © YiAN Kourt/Shutterstock
  • Historic Venetian Walls in Nicosia Park: © airphoto.gr/Shutterstock
  • Entrance of Cyprus Archaeological Museum at Dusk: © A.Savin/Wikimedia | FAL Free Art License 1.3
  • Traditional Stone Building with Wooden Balcony: © Nina Alizada/Shutterstock
  • Exterior View of A. G. Leventis Gallery Building: © Молли/Wikimedia | CC BY-SA 4.0 International
  • Exterior View of Bedesten Building in Nicosia: © Chris06/Wikimedia | CC BY-SA 4.0 International
  • Municipal Theatre Building Facade: © Anne Czichos/Shutterstock
  • Illuminated Courtyard of Büyük Han at Night: © kirill_makarov/Shutterstock
  • Stone Building with Dome and Courtyard: © Kirill Skorobogatko/Shutterstock
  • Kyrenia Gate under Blue Sky: © Arda Altay/Shutterstock
  • Urban Park with Trees and Walkways: © Stratisnik/Shutterstock