Colors and the Meaning of the Estonia Flag
The Estonian flag is composed of three equal horizontal parts and consists of blue, black and white from top to bottom.
There are many theories about the colors of the Estonian flag. One of them is that blue represents the freedom from time to time, the black symbolizes the freedom lost, and the white symbolizes independence and the bright future. And this is the most widely accepted view. Another theory was introduced by the poet Martin Lipp. It represents the blue sky, black Estonian land, white diligence, and human values.
History of the Estonia Flag
The Estonian Flag first appeared on July 4, 1884 as the Estonian University Student Association Flag. In the years following 1884, the blue-black-white flag became a national symbol. On June 27, 1922, the blue-black-white flag was officially declared as the state flag of Estonia.
The Baltic States were using their heraldry in the days of the crusades on their national flags. The three lions on the shield were Estonia’s coat of arms. This coat of arms was first used in a battle with the Danes in 1220. The Estonian coat of arms has been almost unchanged since the first period of Denmark.
The late 1860s were known as the “Awakening” period in the history of Estonia. This was a period when the Estonian culture began to manifest itself after centuries of German and Russian domination. In addition to the development of Estonian arts and sciences, the origins of many Estonian fraternities and student societies date back to this period. The oldest fraternities in Estonia are ‘Vironia’.
Vironia was founded in 1870 in Tartu, Estonia’s second largest city, as well as a leading training center. In 1881, the University of Tartu, Theology student Jaan Bergmann wrote a poem praising the black and white-blue flag of Estonia. The poem paved the way for the acceptance of the Estonian colors by Vironia. On September 29, 1881, Vironia began to use blue-black-and-white colors, the color of the flag. On April 7, 1882, Vironia exhibited his colors at a student ceremony in Tartu. In a few years, the Vironia flag was quickly and widely accepted among the Estonian people.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the blue-black-and-white flag became the symbol of the country during the stage of independence of the Estonian nationalists, the Russians and the Germans. In Saint Petersburg, Estonia and Livonia, many Estonian nationalists gathered around a blue-black-and-white flag in their struggle against Tsarist minorities. Although more than 100,000 Estonian soldiers served in the Imperial Russian Army, the Navy and the Air Force from 1914 to 1917, the Estonian blue-black and white colors had not been used in any of them.
First Independence of Estonia
In early 1917, with Estonians gaining independence from Tsarist, Estonian political leaders officially declared the colors of blue-black and white as the national colors of Estonia. On February 23, 1918, Estonia gained full independence from the Soviet Union and the flag became the official flag of the new republic. The first full independence day was February 24, 1918, and this was Estonia’s official independence day.
When the Germans invaded Estonia in November 1918, they forbade blue-black and white colors, but they did not do much to enforce this ban. Even Estonian ferries running between Helsinki and Tallinn could even wave the Estonian flag. At the end of autumn, Germany’s war was lost by the Estonian people were known to be announced. Following this announcement, on November 12, 1918, the Estonian flag began to fluctuate again in all of Estonian territory.
During the First World War, approximately 450 Estonian soldiers served with the Russian Corps in France. Almost all of them were in the Bordeaux area with the 1st and 3rd Brigades. After February 1917, Estonian soldiers used blue-black and white flags to distinguish themselves from the members of the Russian army. From 1918 to August 1940, the blue-black-and-white flag fluctuated every day at the Pikk Herman tower in Tallinn.
Soviet Union and Estonia
When the Soviet Union officially joined Estonia on July 21, 1940, Estonia’s independence was over. The flag of Estonia was lowered by the Soviet troops from the tower of Pikk Herman and replaced by the Soviet Union flag. After this date, the flag of the Soviet Socialist Republic began to be used in Estonia. During the first Soviet occupation, the Estonian flag was officially banned. The Soviet Union banned this flag for fear that it would unintentionally encourage anti-Soviet sentiments.
This did not apply to the Estonian Flag. The same prohibition was valid for the national colors of Latvia and Lithuania. In the mass media, the Soviets demonstrated the former Estonian flag as a “blood-dog flag” or “counter-revolutionary flag”. Despite the ban, the Estonians tried to find a way to replace the Soviet flag with the Estonian flag in many cases during the 50-year Soviet invasion.
In the late 1980s, the resistance of the Soviets against Estonian nationalism had diminished. Occasional notations of former Estonian national colors were no longer seen by the Soviet occupation authorities. In 1991, the Estonian flag began to fluctuate on Estonia once again. In almost all civil and military situations, the Estonians were re-armed before the Second World War. 1991
Estonia has announced that all the rules and regulations in force on July 20, 1940 will be put into force. After 50 years of occupation, Estonia was finally free. The Estonian Flag, which has the historical colors of Estonia, continued to fluctuate uninterruptedly in the Estonian territory since 1991.
Neighboring Countries of Estonia
Estonia, a Baltic state located in northern Europe, borders the Gulf of Finland to the west and north, Russian Federation to the east and the Republic of Latvia to the south.
Main Characteristics of Estonia
Republic of Estonia, located in Northern Europe; It is one of the countries with the highest literacy rate in the world. Tallinn, the capital city, is one of the cities that should be visited with its museums and visitors. The majority of the population are Estonians; 30% of the population is immigrated to the country. The official language is Estonian. Finnish and Hungarian are among the languages spoken. The currency is Euro.
The climate is temperate. The average temperature is 16 degrees in summer and -4 degrees in winter.
The basis of the Estonian cuisine is Seljanka, potatoes, roast varieties, cabbage, salmon and trout. The most famous drink in the country is the Vana Tallinn liqueur. Pork is also consumed in abundance.
|Highest Point||Suur Munamägi (318 m)|
|Total Area||45,100 km2|