There are 7 Geographical Regions of Turkey. These regions by land area respectively are Eastern Anatolia Region, Central Anatolia Region, Black Sea Region, Mediterranean Region, Aegean Region, Marmara Region, and Southeastern Anatolia Region.
Eastern Anatolia Region
The largest area among the geographical regions of Turkey. East Anatolia Region is the region where the population density is at least. A large part of the region consists of mountains. It is the region with the highest elevation. Livelihoods are agriculture and animal husbandry. Turkey’s largest lake, Lake Van and Mount Ararat is the highest mountain here.
The region is the first-degree seismic zone. The area covers a large area of plateaus. Erzurum-Kars Plateau is the largest plateau of Eastern Anatolia. Since the mountains in the region are more in the east-west direction, the transportation is mostly in the east-west direction. Because of the rugged terrain in the region, agricultural areas are narrow. Therefore, the agricultural population density is high.
The region has a harsh continental climate. It is the region where the average annual temperature is the lowest and winters are the longest and the hardest. In winter, temperatures drop to -40 degrees. In the region, winters last longer, especially around Erzurum-Kars for 5-6 months. During the summer, the temperature is around 20 degrees and the summer season is short. The most common vegetation in the region is steppe.
In Turkey Eastern Anatolia region is where the maximum height and the lowest temperature is seen. For this reason, products in this region grow late. This is the least favorable region in vegetable production, where agricultural product diversity is the least.
Central Anatolia Region
Central Anatolia Region is the second largest region of Turkey after the Eastern Anatolia Region. It neighbors to all regions except Southern Anatolia Region. It the driest and least rainy region of Turkey with the highest erosion rates. It is also known as Turkey’s granary. Furthermore, Salt Lake, Cappadocia and the capital Ankara are in this region. The economy is based on agriculture.
The average altitude of Central Anatolia is around 1000m. The landscape is mostly flat. The region consists of large plains. This cause easy transportation and the existence of large agricultural lands. Also, the agricultural population density is low and the population is distributed regularly in the region due to the large plains. The large plateaus also cause the stability of the climate conditions. Surrounded by high mountains the region has closed basins such as Konya, Salt Lake, Akşehir ve Eber.
The largest lake in the region is the Salt Lake. The lake is of tectonic origin as a formation. The lake is one of the major sources of salt in Turkey. There are Hirifanlı, Kesikköprü and Kapulukaya dams on the Kızılırmak River. These are hydroelectric power plants.
The climate here is considered to be a local steppe climate. Summers are hot and dry, winters are cold and snowy. Temperatures are 23-24 degrees in summer and 0 to -3o degrees in winter. The annual temperature difference is high. It is the region which has the least rainfall due to being surrounded by high mountains. Humidity and precipitation are more in the north of the region. The simplicity of the ground shapes has led to a wide area of cultivated areas. The ratio of the cultivated area (27%) after Marmara is the highest. The use of machinery in agriculture is common. Most of the population is engaged in agriculture. It is the region where cereal is produced most and it is one of the leading wheat products.
Black Sea Region
It covers approximately 18% of the territory of the country. It is the region where the east-west width is the most. It is the most forested region of the country. Four seasons of precipitation can be seen. It is the only region where the tea plant grows.
It has a mountainous appearance in terms of landforms in the region. The mountains in the region are the mountains of the fold extending parallel to the sea. They are called the North Anatolian Mountains. The elevation of the mountains is mostly in the eastern Black Sea region and the least in the Middle Black Sea region. The area where the landforms are at least bumpy is the Middle Black Sea.
The ruggedness of landforms limits mechanization in agriculture. Therefore, there is no need for human and animal power in agriculture. This is especially the case in the Eastern Black Sea Region. In the Black Sea region, precipitation and slope are the most common areas of landslides. Especially in East and West Black Sea, the landslide is more.
While the Black Sea climate is only seen on the coastline, the continental climate has been effective in the inner parts. The amount of precipitation on the coast is high. Transportation difficulties between the coastal and inner parts have emerged. These difficulties have been tried to be overcome through gates. The fact that the ports on the Black Sea coast are not developed sufficiently is related to the difficulty of their connections to the inner parts. The direction of the mountains slowed down the commercial and economic development of the coastal cities.
In the Black Sea climate, summers are cool (23-24 degrees), winters are warm (5-7 degrees) and rainy every season. It is the region where cloudy, humidity and rainfall are the most common. It is the region with the lowest temperature difference and the number of sunny days. Most rainfall is seen in the fall while the least rainfall is in the spring. The vegetation on the coast is the forest. In the interior, there is a continental climate.
The region has 15% of the territory of Turkey. It is the most rugged part of the country. It is the region where summer tourism starts at the earliest, with the highest annual average temperature.
A large part of the Mediterranean region is covered by the Taurus Mountains, which are folding mountains. As a result of the mountains being parallel to the shore; The Mediterranean climate cannot enter the interior. For this reason, climate, vegetation and cultivated products are seen differently between coastal and inland areas. The coastal cliffs are high and natural ports are small. Transportation between the coastal and inner parts is provided through the passageways. The trade between the coastal and the inner parts has not developed at the desired level. The number of plains is low in the Mediterranean region.
Region streams are irregular due to precipitation regime. Due to the Mediterranean climate which is effective in the region, the rivers swell with the precipitation in the winter and in the summer the river levels decrease. The area is rich in terms of the lake. In the west there is the Lakes Region where the lakes are formed by karst and tectonic factors.
The Mediterranean coast is characterized by a characteristic Mediterranean climate. Summers are hot and dry, winters are mild and rainy. Summer temperature is 27-28 degrees, winter temperature is 8-10 degrees. It is one of the regions with the highest number of sunny days. The highest winter temperature is seen on the Mediterranean coast. The high winter temperature makes the greenhouse cheaper. For this reason, the most common place of greenhouse cultivation is Antalya section on the Mediterranean coast.
It covers approximately 10% of the turkey. It is the region with the highest coastal length. It ranks second after Marmara in terms of development and population density. It is the region that has the most gulf. Travertines, which are the most beautiful karstic accumulation form in the world, are located in Pamukkale.
Elevation and ground shapes vary between shore and inland. The coastal formations of the Aegean Sea are in the form of plains between the mountains and the mountains extending in the east-west direction.
Due to the extension of the coastal Aegean mountains and plains in the east-west direction:
1. Transportation is easier in the east-west direction.
2. Domestic zones have developed trade with the Coastal Aegean.
3. The marine climate is more likely to be introduced into the interior.
4. The products that grow in marine conditions can be produced in the interior.
5. There are many bays and gulfs,
6. The number of natural ports is high.
It is in the distribution area of the Mediterranean climate. A transition climate is experienced between the Mediterranean climate of Central Western Anatolia and the steppe climate of Central Anatolia. Since the mountains on the shore are perpendicular to the sea, the sea effect can be inland for 150-200 km. Agriculture is an important source of income. In this situation, it is effective to have a large and efficient agricultural area, to be suitable for agriculture and to solve the irrigation problem to a great extent. Wet winters in the coastal Aegean region led to cheaper greenhouses.
The Marmara region is the sixth in terms of area, with a share of 8.5%. It is the region with the lowest altitude rate, the most climate type is seen, the most energy-consuming, transportation, and trade is the most developed, the population density is the highest, the rate of urbanization is the highest.
The region with the lowest average height. The highest mountain in the region is Uludağ with 2543 m. The elevation of other mountains is not much. The transportation network has been developed due to the simplicity of the ground shapes and the special location. This situation has led to the collection of many industrial organizations in this region. The region with the highest proportion of cultivated land (30%). There is less chance of an earthquake in the territory of Thrace.
It shows a full transition climate feature. Mediterranean climate, continental climate, and the Black Sea climate are seen in the region. The average annual temperature is 14-15 degrees. Winters are not cold (3-6 degrees). Summers are not too hot (23-25 degrees). The Mediterranean climate is effective on the coasts of the Marmara Sea and South Marmara. However, according to the actual Mediterranean climate, summer is not very dry (Black Sea effect), winter temperatures are not high (the effect of latitude). Black Sea climate is seen on the Black Sea coast of Marmara Region. The amount of precipitation is also high. Therefore, these areas are forested.
Istanbul and Bursa are important tourism centers. Tourism activities continue throughout the year. In this case, the historical and cultural center of the Istanbul and Bursa and Turkey’s most important feature of transport cross the harbor has been an effective presence in this region. Also, hot springs and Uludağ are important tourism areas. The northern and southern (Erdek environs) shores of the Marmara Sea have been developed in terms of sea tourism. Spa tourism is also developed in Bursa, Yalova, Balıkesir, and Çanakkale.
Southeastern Anatolia Region
It is the smallest region in the country.
1. Summer is the most drought,
2. Evaporation is the most common,
3. The population at least,
4. Earthquake risk is the lowest.
All of Turkey’s oil production is done in this area. It has a simple structure in terms of landforms. The plateau and plains in the area are large.
The general characteristics of the Mediterranean climate predominate especially in the western part of Southeastern Anatolia, especially around Gaziantep. The rainiest seasons of the winter. Summers are hot and dry. Southeast Anatolia is the place where summer temperature and evaporation intensity are the most common. The reason for this is that it is located in the south, it is closed to the sea and it is open to the warm winds blowing from the south. Although there is more rainfall in Central Anatolia, drought is more effective in Southeast Anatolia. Therefore, the need for precipitation or irrigation is much higher than in other regions. In the region, the most common vegetation is steppe.
The economy of the region is based on agriculture and animal husbandry. The presence of large plains facilitates agriculture. The high summer drought limits the production of many agricultural products. Natural conditions are particularly suitable for grain and lentil production. Pistachio, cotton, rice, sesame, and tobacco are also produced. Ovine livestock is important because of the large step. Especially sheep are grown. Hair goat and angora goat are also grown.
What is the Official Language of Turkey?
The official language of Turkey is Turkish. According to the Constitution: “No language other than Turkish can be taught as an official language to Turkish citizens in educational institutions, and the principles that foreign languages to be taught in education and training institutions and schools that conduct foreign language education and training shall be governed by law.
According to the law in Turkey, Kurdish, Zazaish, Arabic, Georgian, Lazure and Bosnian languages in education and training can not be done. The main languages in Turkey: Turkish (88.54%), Kurdish (8.97%), Zaza (1.01%), Arabic (2.38%)
English in Turkey
1.5 billion people speak English, 400 million of whom are native speakers. In other words, the difference of 1.1 billion indicates that people speak this language as a second language. According to a report published by the WeForum, one of the two European countries that use English at least is Turkey.
The first three countries on the list are the Netherlands (72.16%), Denmark (71.15%) and Sweden (70.81%). Azerbaijan ranks last on the list with 46.90%, and Turkey is above it with a rank of 47.89%. The average of all countries in the list is 53.49%.
The big difference of the Turkish language from European languages might be the reason of low speaking rate of English. Also, the inadequate education system in Turkey can be another reason.