Astana is the capital and second-largest city of Kazakhstan. The city, which was declared as the capital of Kazakhstan in 1998, is located in the province of Akmola. It is in the central part of Kazakhstan. The capital has been moved here to prevent clutter in the southern part of the country.
Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan, a Central Asian country. Astana is located in the northeast of Kazakhstan. Russia is located to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west, China and Mongolia to the east.
When did Astana Become the Capital?
Like all the USSR countries, Almaty was the capital of Kazakhstan, which gained its independence in 1991, until 1997. Akmola was declared a new capital in 1997 by the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev. Moreover, he changed the name of the city to Astana. In Kazakh language, Astana means the capital. The reason for this change is that there are strong earthquakes in Almaty. Akmola (Astana) was not a city before the capital.
Akmola Oblast (region) was founded in 1830 during the Russian Tsarist period. Only 8 years later, in 1838, the Kazakh Khanate supporters and the Kazakh nationalists started an independence struggle against Tsarism, but soon they were defeated. In 1879, the construction of the Akmola railway and the ease of transportation between some Russian cities cause an increase in the population. The collapse of tsarism and the establishment of communism will not worsen the work of the Kazakhs but will worsen the situation. In the USSR, convicts were sent to labor camps called gulag, which were opened in the middle of nothing. One of these gulags was opened in Akmola.
At the end of World War II, Stalin sent both Russian and German convicts to jail or exile. This system continues until the collapse of communism. Akmola, which became Russia’s wheat and barley producer in the 1950s, became the center of the Economic Zone with the initiatives of the communist statesman Nikita Khrushchev. The aim was to make the steppes of Central Asia an agricultural paradise. In 1956, 125 million tons of wheat was produced by this project. This figure was 2 times the total wheat production of the Western countries.
Features of Astana
According to 2017, Astana has a population of 1,029,556. Astana has an area of 810.2 square kilometers. Astana is a capital of Central Asia with a very harsh continental climate and therefore the weather temperature is predictable. It is very cold in winter and very hot in summer. In winter, from the end of November until the end of February and until the middle of March, the temperature in Astana is at least -20 degrees and the highest is -2 degrees. In May, the air temperature is around 7 to 20 degrees. In June, July, and August, the air temperature is between 12 and 26 and sometimes dry.
This city draws attention with its very smooth planning and properly planned streets that cut each other at 90 degrees. There are Central hot water network and central heating system. Close to the snow, the city’s central heating is filled with hot water. Even in the worst apartments, the waters can flow hot from the tap, a system that the Russians brought in time. Astana is a cosmopolitan place where a Russian school is seen all over and Kazakh is hardly spoken.
Astana is a city dominated by meat culture. Astana has a rich culinary culture, where caviar, as well as seafood, has an important place. The meat in the Kazakh kitchen has a special importance. So much so that even meat is used in pastries. In particular, horse meat is highly loved and consumed in the country. Kumis and shubat, one of the traditional drinks of Kazakhstan, were found to be beneficial for health. These two drinks are similar in color to each other. However, Kumis is sour and heavy, while shubat is a sweet drink prepared with camel milk and easier to drink.
Important Places to See in Astana
Since Astana is a city that is set up in the middle of the barefooted Central Asian steppes, be prepared to see very large and very spectacular buildings in the city. The fact that the richness of the State of Kazakhstan is rich enough to provide the richness of the underground riches, such large structures emerge. It is possible to visit most of these large buildings as tourists. The main attractions of Kazakhstan include the National Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Nur-Astana Mosque and the Palace of Peace and Reconciliation.