Germany is a federation of 16 states known as “Länder” in German. Two of Germany’s cities, Berlin and Hamburg, have their own so-called “city-state”. The remaining 14 regions are called “Flächenländer” in German. You can the States of Germany on the map below.
The 16 states have a full range of possibilities in a wide variety of geographies. Moreover, mountain walks in the mountains, spa health resorts, river cruises on the Danube, Rhine or Elbe await you. Furthermore, you will feel the nature preserved in thirteen national parks, 40 UNESCO World Heritage promises unique experiences.
It is the structure of historical buildings and modern architecture, contrasting with the traditional and modern. From the Brandenburg Gate to the Federal Presidency, it tells the history of a whole nation with all its visuals. Moreover, in the capital of Germany, there are all government buildings, including the historic Reichstag, the place of the German Parliament.
Berlin is the city of art, artists and museums. The three major opera houses, such as the internationally celebrated Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and the opera and ballet stage which must be seen, are making Berlin Eldorado for classical lovers all over the world. Furthermore, numerous theatres, varieties, revue theatres, and countless cabarets provide entertainment that appeals to every taste.
The original boutiques around the famous Kurfürstendamm, stylish Friedrichstraße and Hackesche Höfe offer unlimited shopping.
It is important where people eat good food. A warm summer evening in the palace, a terrace overlooking the vineyards, a view that will allow you to enjoy the beauty of life. Moreover, in Baden-Württemberg there are many places for those who enjoy their mouths: drink a Grauburgunder on the tops of Kaiserstuhl, order a freshly caught salmon on a restaurant by Lake Constance, or eat at a gourmet restaurant in the valley. Furthermore, everywhere in the Southwest of Germany is a rich association of gastronomy and region, nature and cultural landscape.
In the south of Germany, the Bayern Republic faces its landscapes like an art book with its capital Munich. Untouched nature, healthy weather, cultural richness and the proverbial Bayern lifestyle have become their trademarks. Moreover, local festivals or opera festivals – Medieval castles and towns, magnificent palaces and Baroque churches provide a wonderful environment for the Bayern metropolis as well.
Nowhere else in Germany are the opposites as close to each other as in the capital region. The vibrant big city Berlin is surrounded by green and untouched Brandenburg. It’s only an hour’s drive from Berlin. Moreover, you can visit, wide horizons, cultural world heritage and rich lakes and rivers. Versatile: Rare populated Uckermark and northern Tuscany. Magnificent palaces, fertile landscape parks and a history of more than 1000 years.
Its 1200 year tradition and open-mindedness make Bremen a Hansa town on the shores of Weser. The imposing City Hall in the Weser Renaissance style and Roland (the UNESCO World Heritage site) on the historic market square are the unchanging symbols of the place. Of course, here are the world famous Bremen Musicians of the Grimm Brothers.
In the middle of the big city’s hustle and bustle, there is a rich green, dark blue shores, and shimmering water borders – Hamburg proves how harmoniously nature and city life can be together. Hamburg, which has long been known as the “green metropolis by the water”, was elected European environmental capital in 2011. It is not surprising that almost half of the city consists of recreational facilities, green spaces, protected natural areas, and forests.
Like the Frankfurt Rhein-Main, the most important starting point for guests from all over the world, holiday regions in Hessen offer themselves as versatile. Culture lovers and nightlife lovers will find a wide range of opportunities here. Moreover, you are never far from nature – just minutes away from Taunus, Vogelsberg, Spessart or Odenwald Frankfurter City. The great Hessenpark Open air museum in Taunus is the only reconstructed Roman castle in the world, Saalburg, and in the immediate vicinity of UNESCO-World Heritage Limes.
Furthermore, Vogelsberg spreads through the surrounding areas with its surrounding hills. Bad Salzhausen, Bad Salzschlirf or Herbstein, as well as Hessen’s two famous bicycle routes, are waiting to be discovered at Vulkanradweg and BahnRadweg. Moreover, the Kinzig valley is located at the intersection of Vogelsberg, Spessart, Babarrossas Gelnhausen where the Imperial Palace is located and Hanau, the birthplace of the Grimm Brothers.
The Lower Saxony mountains and the lakes are the only German states that are together: in the north, there is the North Sea with the tide of UNESCO-World Heritage Wadden Sea. Furthermore, in the south is the northernmost mountain range of Germany, Harz. Here you can go for a walk, go mountain biking and ski in the winter.
The noble Baltic Sea resort is a 1,900-kilometer coast with villages and white beaches, historic UNESCO World Heritage cities and eye-catching nature. Moreover, there are about 2000 palaces, parks and mansions and “Neuschwanstein of the North” in the small cities and islands on the hills between them.
Ludwig van Beethoven, Heinrich Heine or Joseph Beuys – the most populous state has produced many important artists and is one of Europe’s largest cultural centres. Numerous artists, performers, orchestras and concert halls, musicals and events attract millions throughout the year. Furthermore, four UNESCO-World heritage sites are among our major cultural services: Cologne Cathedral, Aachen Cathedral, Augustusburg Castle in Brühl and Zollverein Coal Mines in Essen. The symbols of Cologne are also the most visited tourist sites in Germany.
Romantic qualities, peaceful people and fine wine – there is much more in Rheinland-Pfalz. Furthermore, Ahr, Eifel, Hunsrück, Naheland, Mosel-Saar, Palatinate, Rheinhessen, Romantic Rhine and Westerwald are as diverse and exciting as the people with its vast vineyards, sleepless volcanoes and lively cities!
Feel the pleasure and diversity of riding bicycle tours in Saarland: convenient roads for families along the river valley, climbing tours to France and Luxembourg, or climbing to Hunsrückhöhen. Furthermore, you can pedal on the best quality bicycle path in Saarland, rated by four stars by the ADFC as the first long way across the border.
There is a rich history since Saxony’s cultural history dates back to 1000 years. More than 500 museums are waiting for you in the Saxony holiday regions and cities. Moreover, Tourist attractions such as Semper Opera in Dresden, Frauen Church and Zwinger are important symbols of the War Memorial in Leipzig or the Free State of Saxony in the Moritzburg Palace.
This area features four UNESCO World Heritage sites – the historic Quedlinburg city, the Luther monuments in Eisleben and Wittenberg, the Bauhaus and its surroundings in Dessau and the Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz.
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost part of Germany with its capital, Kiel. A fresh breeze, numerous bastions, beaches and sand dunes await your trip to Schleswig-Holstein. You can also enjoy pure nature. Furthermore, you are invited to enjoyable tours on various bicycle routes, exciting excursions and sailing tours on the islands. Moreover, Schleswig-Holstein is shaped by seas, beaches, wetlands, nature and national parks.
Various geographies, lots of castles and palaces, a unique architecture and cultural diversity and all kinds of entertainment – Holiday region Thuringia symbolizes them. Since Goethe, nobody has summarized the beauty of Thuringia so well: “Where can you find such a beauty in a place on German soil?”.
More About Germany
Germany, an extension of Germanic tribes dating back to the 3rd century BC, is known as the country of poets and thinkers in world history. Hundreds of years of culture are among the countries that have decided on the course of the world with its development in the field of science and technology, which is known for its historical structures of unique natural beauties.
Germany is the most populous country of the European Union member states. The country in Central Europe is bordered by Denmark, Poland, Czech Republic, Switzerland, Austria, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
Germany is bordered by Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the north, Austria and Switzerland in the south, and France and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands in the west.
On the Alps in the South is the highest point of the country Zugspitze. In the north are the Baltic Sea and the North Sea coast. The central part of the country consists of forests and the north is the plains. Ren, Tuna and Elbe are the biggest rivers. In Germany there are natural resources such as iron, coal, potassium, uranium, copper, natural gas and nickel.
The Federal Republic of Germany has been a democratic, parliamentary federal state since 1949. In Germany, which reunited in 1990, there are 81 provinces with 16 provinces and over 100 thousand inhabitants.
Germany has a temperate climate in general. The climate is also affected by the westerly winds that carry moisture and the warm North Atlantic Currents. It rains abundantly in all seasons. The winters are not too cold, and the summers are not too hot. More terrestrial climate features are observed in eastern regions.
Berlin is the capital and largest city. 3.5 million people live in the city 70 kilometers away from the Polish border. It is located on the glacier valley of the Spree River, passing through the center of Berlin city center, where the effect of the Atlantic Ocean has diminished and the land climate has begun. Because of this, the air is cold and slightly damp, and on the other hand cleaner than other industrial cities. Aside from its wide streets, well-kept squares and magnificent stone structures, Berlin is a city with greenery that will balance the look of stone apartments. Berlin is borrowed from this greenery, the Spree River, which flows through the city, and the eastern and western lakes.
Germany, with a population of 82,298,721 million, is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia. Approximately 7.7% of the population is immigrants. The official language of the country is German. In addition to this, Turkish, Kurdish, Polish and Russian are also spoken. 67 percent of the country’s population speaks a foreign language.
The most common religion in the country is Christianity with 66.8% (30.8% Catholic, 30% Protestant). 32 to 35 percent of the population said they did not believe in a religion. Islam is the second largest religion in the country. According to the 2011 census, 1.9% of the population is Muslims.
Industry and Tourism
Today Germany is the fourth largest national economy after the US, Japan and China. It is the second most exported country in the world after China. More than 1 out of every 4 euros earned in an export champion country, more than 1 out of every 5 jobs comes directly or indirectly from foreign trade. With such a trade volume, the country is the lifeblood of the European Union.
Germany is a country considered as the cultural center of Europe. The impressive houses with pointed roofs have a beautiful panorama with towns like postcards. So, for many reasons, in 2011 more than 20 million tourists visited Germany. While German tours have become popular in recent years, a considerable part of Germany’s tourism resources is bicycle tourism. Bicycle tourists from all over the world participate in tours of Germany. The Oktoberfest in Munich is Germany’s most famous touristic and cultural activit.
From the Germans, many great artists have been brought up in fine arts, especially in the music, German composers have become famous in the world. German art has also given immortal art in paintings and sculptures.
Painting: The first examples of German painting that started in the Middle Ages are miniatures and book paintings.
Sculpture: Although sculpture in Germany started at the time of Great Karl, the first valuable dates back in the early eleventh century. The well-developed German sculpture of the twelfth century gave the best examples of the thirteenth century. Moreover, in the fourteenth century, gentle curly dresses in Gothic style sculptures dominated the body lines, and in the fifteenth century the folds multiplied and the sculpture became more rigid.
It is one of the most advanced countries in the field of football. It is one of the most successful countries in the World Cup. The country has raised many famous football players for world football.
The German cuisine varies according to the regions. Pork, beef and poultry dishes are the main dishes. The most consumed vegetables include potatoes, cabbage, carrots, turnips, spinach and beans. Grain foods, honey or jam are also the main breakfast meals of the German people.
What to Eat in Germany?
German cuisine, based on the origins of Eastern Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic), has grown with the contribution of West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) cuisine. The East German cuisine is generally influenced by Eastern European countries (such as Russian, Hungarian). Throughout the history of food and cultural exchange, the East Germans who went to these countries, and the immigrants who came to Germany from these countries, have constantly helped to development of the German Cuisine.
3 Traditions of German Cuisine
Today in Germany, there are three groups in the regional kitchen: Thüringia, Saxony, and Saxony-Anhalt.
Thüringia is a province in Central Germany. The capital city is Erfurt. With plenty of forests, this state is also one of Germany’s best hunting grounds. This region is also known for the variety of meat dishes and wurst varieties prepared in different shapes.
Saxony is located in the east of Germany. The capital city of the state is Dresden. Close to the border of the Czech Republic. Vegetable farming in the state covers most of the production. Also, the coffee here is also very popular.
The capital called Saxony-Anhalt is Magdeburg. Cereal growing is very important in the region. Wheat, barley, oats, and rye are the most important products. Fishing and cheese production is also quite common.
Dishes with Meat in German Cuisine
In the German kitchen, meat is one of the basic foods. They mainly use pork, steak, and poultry. Chicken is the most popular poultry. Meats are usually eaten as roast, Schnitzel or stew. Hogs, rabbits, and deer are meat types that can be found throughout the year. Among the indispensables of the German kitchen, there are varieties of sausages (Wurst). There are 1,500 different types of sausages in Germany, including Bratwurst, Currywurst, Knackwurst, Bockwurst, and Weißwurst.
Fish is not as common as other types of meat in German recipes. The most consumed fish species in the German kitchen is trout. Seabass, carp, and Tuna fish are among the most popular varieties.
Dishes with Vegetables in German Cuisine
The most popular vegetables are potato, cabbage, carrot, spinach, turnip, peas, and beans. They usually prefer vegetables as side dishes as well as meat or fish dishes. The potato, which is as important as the meat in the German kitchen, is not regarded as a vegetable by the Germans. The potato, which entered the German kitchen at the end of the 18th century, is an indispensable food. There are many different tastes including Kartoffelpüree, PommesFritesyada in short, Pommes, Kartoffelsalat, Kartoffelknödel, Kartoffelpuffer – Reibekuchen.
Deserts in German Cuisine
Among the indispensables of the German kitchen, there are varieties of pies and cakes. The most preferred types are fresh fruit. German use apple plums, cherries, and strawberries in making sweet. Another popular dessert is cheesecakes made from Quark cheese. This sweet called Käsekuchen is quite tasty. Quark cheese is a kind of creamy cheese. It is similar to a mixture of cream cheese and filtered yogurt. Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte, also known as the famous cake of the Baden state, is a very well known cake made from cherries. Frankfurter Kranz, known as the famous cake of Frankfurt and Hessen State, takes its name from the image of a wreath cake. It is a light and creamy pastry.
The desserts called Apfelstrudel are worth trying. It is tricky to make this dessert consisting of fruits wrapped in fine dough. Bretzel, made from a dough similar to bagels, is one of the known tastes of the German cuisine with its taste.
600 Types of Bread
Germany is the country with the most bread variety. There are about 600 bread types ranging from white bread to bran, rye and cereal bread. German cuisine on bread is closer to Eastern Europe than the West. Many types of bread are obtained from a mixture of both wheat and red rye flour. This kind of bread called Mischbrot is consumed lovingly.
Brown bread is more popular in the German cuisine than white bread. Germans’ consumption of bread usually accompanies breakfast and dinner in the morning. Stulle in Berlin, Butterbrot known as Bütterken in the Rhine region is an indispensable part of a great day for a German.
Breakfasts and dinners in the morning are usually light meals in the form of sandwiches. Small rounded bread known as Brötchen, Semmel, Schrippe, Rundstück or Weckle have an important place in the German cuisine.
Popular German Drinks
Although wine consumption is widespread in many parts of the country, Germany’s national drink is Beer. In Germany, annual beer consumption per capita is about 107 liters. Germany is one of the countries that consume the most beer after the Czechs and Irish in the world. There are currently 990 brewing companies active in the country. They produce 7 thousand 503 different types of beer. 259 of them are alcohol-free. The most common varieties of beer in Germany; Wheat beans (Weizenbier, Berliner Weiße, Leipziger Gose, Hefeweizen) and rarely unfiltered ones (Pilsener, Kölsch, Altbier, Bock).
Thanks to immigrants from other countries throughout history, German cuisine and daily eating habits have been influenced by many cuisines. Especially after World War II, foreign food culture has entered into German cuisine with the influence of foreign workers. This interaction is still going on. You can find Italian dishes such as pizza and pasta or Turkish food döner, especially in big cities. International fast food chains and Chinese restaurants have spread to many parts of the country. The popularity of Japanese and other Asian cuisines is increasing day by day. Today, although German food culture is a mixed kitchen, it maintains its unique place in world cuisines with its deserts, beer, wurst, and bread varieties.
What is the Official Language of Germany?
The official language of Germany is German.
But in the country, each region has its own dialectic. Almost all of the young people in Germany can speak English like their native language. Among the elderly population, the ratio of those who speak Russian is higher. Also, Spanish and French are the other foreign languages in the country.
German is one of the common languages of the world. It is one of the official languages of the European Union and the most widely spoken. Particularly in Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Switzerland, the South Tyrol section of Italy, Belgium’s eastern cantons, some regions of Poland and Romania, and the Alsace-Loren region of France. More than 120 million people speak German in 38 countries, especially in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria.
Features of Germany
German is known as a difficult language by English speakers. German is a difficult language with long words, deep grammatical rules, and pronunciations of all the muscles in the mouth. In German, there are quite long and difficult to pronounce words. ‘Wachstumsbeschleunigungsgesetz’ (the law to accelerate growth) is an example.
The closest language to German is the English language. There are similarities with Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Iceland and Faroe dialects on this dial. The dialects are usually twisted. The sentence structure is usually in the form of subject + predicate + complement.
There are singular and plural divisions in German names. Unlike other western European languages, there are three categories of nominal attribution in German, according to four-state nominal adjectives (name state, complement, orientation and state of affirmation), status, gender and singularity/pluralism. Verb conjugation is weak, strong, and irregular.