Global warming is now in our lives, according to climate scientists, rising polar temperatures and the rapid melting of glaciers have already begun to affect North America, Europe, and Asia, where millions of people live.
Explaining that snowstorms, intense winter heat, and flood disasters are related to rising temperatures, scientists explain that important changes have taken place in the atmosphere and that this is especially affecting the regions where human beings live as crowds.
What is Climate Change
Climate change is the changes in the average and/or variability of the climate for decades or longer, regardless of the cause. Throughout the history of our world, in a period of about 4.5 billion, there have been many changes in the climate system with natural factors and processes. Climate changes in geological periods, especially glacial movements and changes in the incoming solar radiation at sea level, changes in the reflected part of the solar radiation have not only changed the world geography through the changes in the long wave radiation sent back to the earth but also caused permanent changes in the ecological systems.
Nowadays, global climate change refers to the increase in the average surface temperatures of the Earth and the changes in climate as a result of the rapid increase in the greenhouse effect of greenhouse gas accumulations released into the atmosphere by human activities such as burning fossil fuels, land use changes, deforestation, and industrial processes.
The heat energy held on earth and in the atmosphere is dispersed in the earth by the atmosphere and the ocean circulation, and it is given back to the atmosphere as long-wave radiation. Part of this is absorbed by clouds and greenhouse gases regulating the greenhouse effect and released back by the atmosphere. In this way, the Earth’s surface and the lower atmosphere become hot. This process is the natural greenhouse effect, which allows the earth to warm more than expectations and regulate the heat balance.
What is the Cause of Climate Change?
The atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4) and Nitrogen (N2O) have increased significantly since the beginning of the industrial revolution. This was largely due to fossil fuel use, changes in land use and human activities such as agriculture. For example, today the density of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen to over 650000 years, and in the last decade has increased much faster than measured since the measurements began in 1960.
The climate system is a complex and interactive system of atmosphere, earth, snow and glaciers, oceans and other water resources and living things. The atmospheric component of the climate system generally determines the climate which is the average of weather events.
All movements in the atmosphere, which is a fluid, are because of temperature differences. These differences depend on the sun’s angle of arrival, the distribution of land sea, land surface (forest area, agricultural area, wetland, such as the desert) characteristics. The main factor in determining climate patterns in the world is the changes in ocean water temperatures. Looking at the world’s last 400,000-year CO2 cycle, on average, every 80,000 to 100,000 years, CO2 in the atmosphere is rising and then falling again, as well as rising and decreasing in temperature is parallel to CO2.
Effects of Climate Change
Climate change affects areas such as water resources, natural disaster, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and public health, which are directly related to social life and economic sectors.
- Water shortage due to change of precipitation regime and/or occurrence of floods
- Sea level rise, damage to the coastal areas, especially deltas
- The increase in desertification with increasing temperature
- Reduction of precipitation in summer months
- Increasing water consumption in agriculture
- Loss of surface waters
- Affect the agricultural structure and product pattern based on natural resources such as water and soil
- Food safety is adversely affected due to changes in crop production periods due to increasing temperatures
- Destruction of sensitive ecosystems and species
- The increase in natural disasters due to the frequency of forest fires and changes in snowfall and melting periods
What is Adaptation to Climate Change?
It is the process of strengthening, developing and implementing strategies to combat the effects of climate change, to benefit and to manage effects. Even if emissions that cause climate change are reduced or terminated, greenhouse gases remaining in the atmosphere will continue to change climate events. Climate change is a problem of development. Therefore, it is necessary to adapt to climate change to minimize economic, social and environmental impacts and risks.
It is a policy document that is to contribute to the coordination of compliance activities; identifying country-specific impacts that involve and coordinates climate change adaptation activities at national, local and regional levels, as well as the wide participation of business and civil society actors, as well as the introduction of different institutions and administrative instruments.
What are the Dangers Awaiting the World with Climate Change?
Climate change affects areas such as water resources, natural disaster, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and public health, which are directly related to the social and economic sectors and living life. In this context, water shortages and/or floods occur due to the change of precipitation regime, sea level rise, damage to coastal areas, especially deltas, increase in temperature and desertification.
Attention – “Climate Change” has already begun!
Did you know that the north ice cover has been shrinking since the 1970s? Furthermore, it has already lost a third of its volume? Lately, the temperatures measured in the polar region of Russia, above 33 to 20 degrees centigrade, shocked scientists.
According to Professor Jennifer Francis of the Arctic climate expert at Rutgers University, ice levels have reached their lowest level in history recently. Furthermore, indicating that this warming of the ice is impossible not to affect the climate, Francis says that the effects of the current sudden climate breakdown will increase exponentially and that this change in the ice will trigger climate changes in the south.
Let us put aside the facts that everyone knows about global warming. We know that the whole world is under the effect of global warming. Which countries are most affected by global warming? Why are these countries affected? Did you know? Let us explain.
Countries Most Affected by Global Warming
The most affected countries: Chad, Eritrea, Burundi, DR Congo, Central African Republic, Sudan, Nigeria, Haiti, Afghanistan, Guinea-Bissau.
The least affected countries are Norway, New Zealand, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Australia, United Kingdom, United States of America, Germany, Iceland.
In our map, we showed 10 countries that were most affected by global warming and the least affected 10 countries. Did you realize that the most affected countries are the poorest countries?
In fact, it has no relation to development and money. Furthermore, the impact of these 10 countries on global warming is 2% in total. However, since 2010, these countries have reported more than 50 deaths each year in connection with rising temperatures.
Global warming will make the hottest countries in the world even hotter, which is likely to result in more deaths due to heat and droughts. The coldest countries in the world will experience hotter summers, but their winters may actually get more freezing cold.
Will the World Enter the “Little Ice Age” in 2021?
British scientists have reported that the decline of the energy waves in the Sun could cause the Earth to enter a mini ice age from 2021 to 2050.
Valentina Zharkova, a professor of mathematics at the University of Northumbria in England, said that Earth is on the verge of a mini-ice age. Furthermore, Zharkova and his team have developed a model that allows for future mathematical forecasting of global climate change. According to new calculations, the sun’s magnetic waves will decrease and this will cause a serious drop in air temperatures, especially in 2021-50. The research team estimates that there will be a similar period of time between the 15th and 19th centuries, periodically called ‘Little Ice Age’.
The world is warmed by the sun’s rays reflected from the world rather than the sun’s rays. These reflected rays are held by gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor so that the earth heats up. The retention of the rays by these gases is called the greenhouse effect. Increasing the amount of these gases in the atmosphere greatly increases the warming of the Earth.
The current danger lies in the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that exacerbates this natural greenhouse effect. While the carbon resources in our world remain stable for thousands of years, modern human activities now lead to the use of fossil fuels, the destruction of forests, excessive agriculture, and the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
Global warming is a natural process, with the greenhouse effect increases the temperature of the atmosphere periodically. As a result of the activities of the people, the effect is increasing as the input of the atmosphere increases, especially the gases.
UN Environment Report
According to the report published in Geneva on 16.02.2001:
- In the 21st century, the average air temperature will increase between 1.4 ° C and 5.3 ° C
- With the melting of the glaciers, the seas will rise 8-88 cm
- Eventually, irreversible changes will occur in the physical structure of the world
- On the African continent, the average annual rainfall will decrease, the agricultural shortage will decrease and there will be water shortage
- High temperatures, floods and soil degradation in the arid and tropical regions of Asia
- In the northern regions, there will be an increase in agricultural yield, and tropical hurricanes will increase
- In the European continent, the southern regions will become prone to drought
- Half of the glaciers of the Alps will disappear at the end of the 21st century, and the agricultural yield will decrease
- In Northern Europe, the agricultural yield will increase
- There will be drought in the Latin America, the floods will be repeated very frequently, the agricultural yield will decrease, malaria and cholera will increase
- The increase in agricultural output in North America
- Especially in Florida and Atlantic coast, sea level will rise, big waves will occur and floods will be seen, malaria and fever will increase
To reduce carbon dioxide emissions, which is the most effective gas on global warming by 5%, it is stated that all countries have to implement new industrial policies that do not affect nature.
Greenhouse gases are compounds that support the greenhouse effect, are in the atmosphere and have the most heat retention properties.
The Earth’s atmosphere consists of various gases. There are also small amounts of inert gases. The rays coming from the sun, passing the atmosphere, heats the earth. Gases in the atmosphere keep some of the heat on the earth and prevent the heat loss of the earth. The atmosphere can pass light and keep heat. The temperature of the water remains stable thanks to the ability of the atmosphere to hold the heat. This prevents rivers and oceans from freezing. In this way, the heating and insulation effect of the atmosphere is “Greenhouse effect“.
The main greenhouse effect gases in the world are 36-70% water vapor, 9-26% Carbon dioxide, 4-9% Methane and 3-7% Ozone. Naturally generated greenhouse gases contain water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.
The Kyoto Protocol is the only international framework to fight global warming and climate change. Signed in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The countries that have signed this protocol have promised to reduce the emission of five other gases that cause carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect, or to increase their rights through carbon trading if they are unable to do so.
The protocol requires countries to reduce the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere to levels in 1990. The protocol signed in 1997 entered into force in 2005. Because, in order for the protocol to enter into force, the emissions of the approval countries in 1990 (the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere) had to reach 55% of the total emissions on earth. This rate also could only be achieved with the participation of Russia at the end of 8 years.
The Kyoto Protocol currently covers over 160 countries and more than 55% of greenhouse gas emissions on earth. Measures of the Kyoto Protocol require expensive investments.
Basis of Kyoto Protocol
- The amount of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere will decrease to 5%,
- Legislation to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas from industry, motor vehicles and heating will be rearranged,
- Heating with less energy, taking a long way with less energy consuming technologies, less energy consuming technology systems will be placed in the industry,
- Environmentalism will be the basic principle in transportation and landfill.
- Reduce the amount of methane and carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere and turn to alternative energy sources,
- Waste operations will be reorganized in high-energy consuming enterprises such as cement, iron-steel and lime factories,
- Systems and technologies that generate less carbon in thermal power plants will be active,
- Since carbon is zero in nuclear energy, this energy will be the new energy source of the world.
What is the Carbon Footprint?
The total greenhouse gas emitted by an organization, person, activity or product is the carbon footprint. In other words; The Carbon Footprint is a measure of the damage to human to the environment (transportation, heating, electricity consumption, purchased products, etc.) measured in terms of the amount of greenhouse gas produced by the unit in terms of carbon dioxide. Fully volunteering is essential. The organization who wants to calculate the corporate carbon footprint can use GHG Protocol, PAS 2060 and ISO 14064 international standards.