What is the Capital of Vietnam?

Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam. Founded over a thousand years ago, Hanoi has a rich history reflected in its well-preserved streets, ancient temples, and unique Southeast Asian, Chinese, and French influences.

Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam
Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam

Hanoi is also home to important national monuments, buildings, and beautiful lakes. As a rapidly growing city, Hanoi has embraced modernity, boasting a vibrant arts scene, trendy cafes, and modern architecture alongside its traditional aspects. Its diverse cultural heritage and striking blend of old and new make it an exciting and intriguing destination for travelers.

Where is Hanoi?

Location of Hanoi
Location of Hanoi

Hanoi is located in the northern region of Vietnam, on the right bank of the Red River in the Red River Delta Region. The city is approximately 1,760 kilometers (1,090 miles) north of Ho Chi Minh City, the largest city in the country.

Hanoi serves as the political center of Vietnam and is an important cultural and economic hub for the nation. Its location in the northern part of the country gives it a distinctive climate, with distinct seasons and a rich, diverse landscape in the surrounding areas.

History of Hanoi

The history of Hano is rich and complex, spanning over a thousand years.

The One Pillar Pagoda,Hanoi
The One Pillar Pagoda, originally constructed in 1049 during the reign of Emperor Lý Thái Tông of the Lý Dynasty.

The area around Hanoi has been inhabited since at least 3000 BC. Archaeological findings at the Hồng Bàng period’s Đông Sơn culture suggest that the region was an early center of Bronze Age civilization, known for its intricate bronze drum craftsmanship.

Hanoi’s recorded history truly began in 1010 when Emperor Lý Thái Tổ founded the city and named it Thăng Long, meaning “Ascending Dragon.” Legend has it that the emperor saw a dragon ascending from the Red River, inspiring the city’s name. Thăng Long served as the capital of the Lý Dynasty, marking the beginning of Hanoi’s central role in Vietnamese history.

Thăng Long continued as the political and cultural heart of the country through the Trần Dynasty (1225-1400) and part of the Lê Dynasty (1428-1789). The city was the site of important political events, royal proclamations and also witnessed several invasions and occupations, particularly by Chinese forces.

St. Joseph's Cathedral, constructed in the late 19th century
St. Joseph’s Cathedral, constructed in the late 19th century during the French colonial period.

During the Lê Dynasty, the city’s status fluctuated, and it was not the primary capital for some periods. However, it continued to be a significant political and cultural center.

Later, Hanoi became part of French Indochina in the late 19th century, and French colonial rule significantly influenced its architecture and culture. The French made Hanoi the capital of French Tonkin and later French Indochina.

Buildings like the Hanoi Opera House reflect the French influence on the city’s architecture and urban planning.

Furthermore, Hanoi was a center of resistance against French rule, culminating in the battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, leading to the end of French colonial control.

The Presidential Palace in Hanoi, the former residence of Ho Chi Minh
The Presidential Palace in Hanoi, the former residence of Ho Chi Minh from 1954 to 1969.

The city briefly ceased to be the capital when Vietnam was temporarily divided into North and South in 1954, with Saigon becoming the capital of South Vietnam. During the Vietnam War, Hanoi was the capital of North Vietnam and played a central role in the North’s strategies. The city suffered significant damage from bombing campaigns.

After the fall of Saigon in 1975, Vietnam was reunified, and Hanoi was reinstated as the capital of the United country. Since the “Đổi Mới” economic reforms of the late 1980s, Hanoi has experienced rapid growth and development. The city has become a center for business, technology, and cultural innovation in Vietnam.

In 2010, Hanoi celebrated its 1,000th anniversary with various events, reflecting on its rich history and emerging status as a global city.
Hanoi’s history reflects the broader history of Vietnam, marked by periods of occupation, resistance, war, and renewal. Its blend of ancient tradition and modernity, influenced by various cultures over the centuries, makes Hanoi a unique and captivating city.

Features of Hanoi

Hanoi is characterized by its unique blend of ancient history and modernity. Its vibrant street life, rich cultural heritage, and scenic beauty make it a captivating destination.

The city’s Old Quarter is an iconic area with narrow, bustling streets filled with traditional vendors, street food, and cafes. The neighborhood is a labyrinth of lanes, preserving much of the old Hanoi, with French colonial architecture sitting alongside ancient temples and pagodas. The area represents the heart of Hanoi’s commerce and showcases the city’s rich history.

Geography and Climate

Skyline of Hanoi at twilight
Skyline of Hanoi at twilight

Hanoi experiences a humid subtropical climate with four distinct seasons. The summers are hot and humid, typically from May to August, with temperatures often exceeding 30 °C (86 °F). The city can also experience heavy rainfall during the summer months, particularly in July and August.

Winters, on the other hand, are relatively mild and dry, occurring from December to February, with temperatures often around 15 °C (59 °F). Spring and autumn are the most pleasant seasons, with milder temperatures and less humidity.

Hanoi’s geography includes a mix of hills, rivers, and flatlands, giving the city a varied terrain. Its proximity to the Red River Delta has shaped much of its landscape, with numerous lakes and ponds scattered throughout the city, adding to its scenic beauty.


Hanoian woman with flowers to sell
Hanoian woman with flowers to sell, an every day part of the city’s vibrant street culture.

Hanoi is home to a diverse population, with various ethnic groups represented in the city. Most of the population is Kinh (Viet), but other ethnic minorities reside here. As of writing this, Hanoi’s population is estimated to be over 8 million.

The population density varies across the city, with denser concentrations in the urban areas and commercial centers. Hanoi’s people are known for their rich cultural traditions, hospitality, and a strong sense of community, reflecting the broader Vietnamese culture.


Modern urban and financial district in Hanoi.
Modern urban and financial district in Hanoi.

Hanoi’s economy is one of the most robust in Vietnam, serving as a vital hub for business and commerce. The city has grown substantially in various sectors, including technology, finance, manufacturing, and services. Key industries include information technology, banking, real estate, and tourism.

In recent years, Hanoi has attracted significant foreign investment, particularly in the technology sector, and has become a thriving center for startups and innovation. The city’s government has implemented policies to foster economic growth and attract domestic and foreign businesses.

Tourism is also vital to Hanoi’s economy, with the city’s rich history and cultural attractions drawing visitors worldwide. This has led to growth in related industries such as hospitality, retail, and food services.

Combining traditional industries, like agriculture and handicrafts, with modern sectors has created a diverse and resilient economy. The city continues to drive Vietnam’s overall economic development, balancing its rich heritage with a forward-looking approach to business and innovation.

Things to Do and Places to See in Hanoi

Hanoi presents a diverse array of attractions and enjoyable activities for tourists. Here’s a glimpse of some essential experiences to explore in the city:

1. Explore the Old Quarter

Train street filled with shops, restaurants, and cafes in Hanoi's Old Quarter
Train street filled with shops, restaurants, and cafes in Hanoi’s Old Quarter.

The Old Quarter is a bustling and vibrant city, rich in history and culture. It’s often referred to as the “36 Streets,” and many streets are named after the crafts and goods historically sold there.

Visiting the Old Quarter provides a rich sensory experience, from the vibrant colors of the market stalls to the tantalizing smells of street food. Whether you’re interested in history, shopping, or simply soaking up the local culture, the Old Quarter has something to offer. Always respect local customs and traditions as you explore this exciting area of Hanoi.

2. Visit Hoan Kiem Lake and Ngoc Son Temple

The Red Huc Bridge leading to the entrance of Ngoc Son Temple
The Red Huc Bridge, leading to the entrance of Ngoc Son Temple.

The Hoan Kiem Lake, or Lake of the Returned Sword, is located in the heart of Hanoi, and it is a serene and beautiful spot amidst the hustle and bustle of the city. It is a focal point in Hanoi’s Old Quarter and an essential part of local life and history.

As you wander around Hoan Kiem Lake, you’ll soon find yourself near the Ngoc Son Temple, one of Hanoi’s most frequented and culturally meaningful landmarks. Also known as the Temple of Jade Mountain, this temple is on a petite island within the lake and accessible via the vibrant red Huc Bridge.

The temple was initially built in the 18th century and has undergone several renovations over the years. It is dedicated to General Tran Hung Dao, who defeated the Mongols in the 13th century, and to the scholar Van Xuong and the Taoist sage La To.

3. Watch a Water Puppet Show

Water Puppet Show in the Water Puppet Theatre in Hanoi
Water Puppet Show in the Water Puppet Theatre in Hanoi.

Water puppetry, known as “múa rối nước” in Vietnamese, is a unique and ancient art form that originated in the Red River Delta region of northern Vietnam. It’s mainly associated with Hanoi and can be experienced at venues such as the Thang Long Water Puppet Theatre in the city’s Old Quarter.

Water puppetry dates back to the 11th century, making it one of Vietnam’s oldest theatrical traditions. Villagers initially performed it in the flooded rice fields during festivals and celebrations. Water puppet shows are performed in a pool of water, which serves as the stage. The water adds a mystical dimension to the performance and conceals the puppeteers’ mechanisms.

4. Visit the Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum Complex

The Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum in Ba Dinh Square
The Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, located at Ba Dinh Square, where Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam’s independence from French rule on September 2, 1945.

The Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum Complex in Hanoi is an important and sacred site in Vietnam, dedicated to Ho Chi Minh, the country’s revolutionary leader, and President who led the fight for Vietnamese independence. The complex is an important symbol of national pride and a place of pilgrimage for many Vietnamese.

Visiting the Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum Complex offers deep insights into Vietnam’s history, culture, and reverence for its founding father. The complex is a constant reminder of the nation’s struggle for independence and the ideals of a man who continues to symbolize national unity.

5. Tour the Temple of Literature

The Temple of Literature, founded by Emperor Ly Thanh Tong in 1070
The Temple of Literature, founded by Emperor Ly Thanh Tong in 1070 to honor Confucius, sages, and scholars.

The Temple of Literature, known as Văn Miếu in Vietnamese, is one of Hanoi’s most famous and significant landmarks. It’s a remarkable complex representing Vietnam’s rich history and dedication to education, literature, and Confucian values.

Whether you’re a history enthusiast, a lover of architecture, or someone seeking a peaceful escape in the bustling city of Hanoi, the Temple of Literature offers a unique and enriching experience. It is a proud reminder of Vietnam’s centuries-old commitment to education, wisdom, and moral values.

6. Hoa Lo Prison Relic

Hoa Lo Prison, originally built by the French colonial administration in 1896
Hoa Lo Prison, originally built by the French colonial administration in 1896 to detain political prisoners who opposed colonial rule.

Hoa Lo Prison, often called the “Hanoi Hilton” by American POWs during the Vietnam War, is a historic site with a dark and complex history. Located in central Hanoi, it serves as a stark reminder of Vietnam’s turbulent past and has been preserved as a museum known as the Hoa Lo Prison Relic.

During the Vietnam War, the prison held American prisoners of war, including prominent figures like Senator John McCain. During this period, the ironic nickname “Hanoi Hilton” was coined by American POWs.

After the war, the prison continued to function until 1993, when it was closed down. Part of the prison was demolished for modern development, but a section has been preserved as a museum.

7. Explore the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long

Doan mon the main gate of thang long imperial citadel
The Imperial Citadel of Thang Long, founded in the 11th century during the Ly Dynasty and served as the country’s political center for 13 continuous centuries.

The Imperial Citadel of Thang Long, located in Hanoi, Vietnam, is an intriguing historical site representing the country’s rich cultural heritage. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the citadel is a complex of historic imperial buildings and relics, reflecting a blend of various Asian architectural styles.

A visit to the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long provides a fascinating journey through Vietnam’s history and an opportunity to appreciate the nation’s unique cultural identity. It’s a must-see destination for history enthusiasts and anyone interested in delving into the multifaceted past of this Southeast Asian nation.

8. Visit the Hanoi Opera House

The Hanoi Opera House, a classic example of colonial-era grandeur
The Hanoi Opera House, a classic example of colonial-era grandeur.

The Hanoi Opera House, located in the heart of Hanoi, Vietnam, is a stunning architectural landmark representing the city’s vibrant cultural scene. With its elegant design and historical significance, it’s one of Hanoi’s most prominent and beautiful buildings.

The Hanoi Opera House is more than a venue for performing arts; it symbolizes Hanoi’s elegance, cultural richness, and historical complexity. Whether attending a world-class performance or simply admiring the architectural splendor, visiting the Hanoi Opera House offers a glimpse into the city’s soul. It is an enriching experience for art and history enthusiasts alike.

9. Tran Quoc Pagoda

Tran Quoc Pagoda, established in the 6th century during the reign of Emperor Ly Nam De
Tran Quoc Pagoda, established in the 6th century during the reign of Emperor Ly Nam De.

Tran Quoc Pagoda, located on a small island in West Lake, Hanoi, Vietnam, is one of the country’s oldest and most revered Buddhist temples. It offers a tranquil and spiritual escape within the bustling city and symbolizes Vietnam’s rich religious heritage.

Tran Quoc Pagoda is not just a historical monument but a living spiritual sanctuary that continues to inspire and serve the community’s spiritual needs. The combination of its architectural beauty, tranquil lakeside setting, and rich history makes it a must-visit destination in Hanoi for those interested in Buddhism, Vietnamese culture, or simply seeking a peaceful escape.

10. Vietnam Military History Museum

Vietnam Military History Museum, featuring the story of Vietnam's military history
Vietnam Military History Museum, featuring the story of Vietnam’s military history, including its struggles against foreign occupation and its fight for independence.

The Vietnam Military History Museum, also known as the Army Museum, is one of the leading museums dedicated to Vietnam’s military history, from ancient times to the Vietnam War. This museum is not just a repository of artifacts but also a symbol of national pride and resilience.

The Vietnam Military History Museum offers a comprehensive overview of Vietnam’s long and complex military history. It’s a place of education, reflection, and sometimes, controversy. For history enthusiasts, military buffs, or those seeking to understand Vietnam’s past from a local viewpoint, visiting this museum can be informative and thought-provoking.

11. Vietnam Museum of Ethnology

Replica of a traditional tribal house at the Vietnam Museum of Ethnology
Replica of a traditional tribal house at the Vietnam Museum of Ethnology.

The Vietnam Museum of Ethnology in Hanoi offers an insightful look into the rich ethnic diversity of Vietnam. With 54 officially recognized ethnic groups in the country, the museum’s exhibits aim to promote socio-cultural diversity and encourage ethnographic dialogue and understanding.

The museum’s indoor galleries contain extensive displays of everyday objects, photographs, videos, and artwork representing different ethnic groups. These include traditional clothing, religious artifacts, musical instruments, and more.

The outdoor area is dedicated to traditional Vietnamese architecture, featuring life-size replicas of various ethnic homes and structures. It’s a great way to explore different architectural styles and building techniques nationwide.

Frequently Asked Questions

What’s the best time to visit Hanoi?

The best time to visit Hanoi is spring (March to April) and autumn (September to November), when the weather is milder and less humid.

Is Hanoi safe for tourists?

Hanoi is generally considered safe for tourists, but like any large city, it’s wise to take standard precautions, such as watching belongings and avoiding poorly lit areas at night.

What’s the currency in Hanoi, and where can I exchange money?

The currency in Vietnam is the Vietnamese Dong (VND). Money can be exchanged at banks, hotels, and authorized exchange bureaus.

How can I get around in Hanoi?

Hanoi has various transportation options, including buses and motorbike taxis. Ride-hailing apps are also popular and convenient.

What are the must-try Foods in Hanoi?

Hanoi is famous for its diverse and delicious cuisine, reflecting its rich cultural heritage and its place in modern Vietnamese life. Here’s a selection of must-try foods and dishes:

Phở: Perhaps Vietnam’s most famous dish, Phở is a fragrant noodle soup typically made with beef (Phở Bò) or chicken (Phở Gà). It’s served with fresh herbs, lime, and chili, allowing each person to customize the flavor to their liking.
Bún Chả: A signature dish of Hanoi, Bún Chả consists of grilled fatty pork served over rice vermicelli noodles and garnished with fresh herbs. It’s often accompanied by a dipping sauce made from fish sauce, vinegar, sugar, and lime.
Chả Cá Lã Vọng: This is a unique and flavorful fish dish traditionally made with turmeric-marinated fish that’s fried and then served with dill, spring onions, peanuts, and noodles.
Bánh Mì: A product of French colonial influence, Bánh Mì is a Vietnamese sandwich filled with a variety of ingredients such as meats, vegetables, and condiments, all encased in a crispy French baguette.
Egg Coffee (Cà Phê Trứng): A delightful concoction of coffee, sweetened condensed milk, and egg yolks, whipped until creamy and served hot or cold. It’s a must-try experience in Hanoi’s coffee culture.

Is English widely spoken in Hanoi?

English is commonly spoken in tourist areas, hotels, and restaurants, but not everyone may be fluent. It may be helpful to learn a few basic phrases in Vietnamese.

What should I wear in Hanoi?

Light, breathable clothing is advisable for the hot months, with warmer clothing for the cooler winter. Modest clothing is recommended when visiting religious sites.

Is there any critical cultural etiquette to be aware of in Hanoi?

Respectful behavior is valued, including removing shoes when entering homes or temples and avoiding public displays of affection.

Can I drink tap water in Hanoi?

Drinking bottled or boiled water is generally recommended, as tap water may be unsafe for drinking.

What are some recommended souvenirs to bring home from Hanoi?

Silk, lacquerware, traditional Vietnamese hats (nón lá), and coffee are popular souvenirs.

How far is Halong Bay from Hanoi?

Halong Bay is about 170 kilometers (105 miles) from Hanoi, and it is a popular excursion for visitors.

What type of power plug is used in Hanoi?

Vietnam generally uses Type A, C, and D plugs, with a standard voltage of 220 V and a frequency of 50 Hz.

Final Thoughts

Hanoi offers a multifaceted experience to its visitors. The city’s unique mix of French colonial architecture, ancient temples, delicious street food, and welcoming locals creates a captivating charm that appeals to travelers of all interests.

Hanoi is a destination that encapsulates the essence of Vietnam, making it not just worth visiting but a must-see for anyone looking to immerse themselves in a place where tradition and modernity coexist in harmonious balance.

Image Sources and Copyright Information
  • Map of Vietnam Highlighting Major Cities and Bordering Countries: © Peter Hermes Furian/Shutterstock
  • Map with Pin on Hanoi Location: © Yes I Am Photographer/Shutterstock
  • One Pillar Pagoda in Hanoi, Vietnam: © Richie Chan/Shutterstock
  • Sunset Behind St. Joseph’s Cathedral: © Hlib Shabashnyi/Shutterstock
  • Yellow Presidential Palace in Hanoi Surrounded by Greenery: © Mikhail Gnatkovskiy/Shutterstock
  • Hanoi Skyline at Dusk: © Vietnam Stock Images/Shutterstock
  • Street Vendor Carrying Baskets in Hanoi: © SunnyAndMoon/Shutterstock
  • Hanoi Financial District Skyline at Sunset: © LT Photography/Shutterstock
  • Evening Bustle in Hanoi Old Quarter Street: © Avinash Gatreddi/Shutterstock
  • Red Bridge Leading to a Traditional Gate in Hanoi: © Norwood Audrey Jared/Shutterstock
  • Traditional Water Puppet Performance: © Tsuguliev/Shutterstock
  • Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum in Hanoi, Vietnam: © Jimmy Tran/Shutterstock
  • Traditional Asian Temple Entrance: © Efired/Shutterstock
  • Exterior View of Hoa Lo Prison Building: © TK Kurikawa/Shutterstock
  • Imperial Citadel of Thang Long in Hanoi: © Leonid Andronov/Shutterstock
  • Hanoi Opera House in Vietnam: © Danny Iacob/Shutterstock
  • Tran Quoc Pagoda by West Lake at Night: © Amachau/Shutterstock
  • Aerial View of Vietnam Military History Museum Exhibits: © Nguyen Quang Ngoc Tonkin/Shutterstock
  • Traditional Stilt House at Vietnam Museum of Ethnology: © RudiErnst/Shutterstock