What is the Capital of Uzbekistan?

Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekistan. It’s the largest and most populous city and is the nation’s center for politics, commerce, and culture.

Map of uzbekistan
Map of Uzbekistan

Tashkent features a mix of ancient landmarks and modern architecture. The city is known for its well-preserved Islamic and Soviet-era sites and diverse eateries and markets. It’s a meeting point for different cultures, making it a fascinating place for locals and visitors.

Where is Tashkent?

A yellow pin on uzbekistan of the world map travel
A yellow pin on Uzbekistan of the world map travel

Tashkent is located in the northeastern part of Uzbekistan, near the border with Kazakhstan. It is in the Chirchiq River valley and lies in the larger Tashkent Region.

Geographically, Tashkent sits in Central Asia, making it a landlocked city in a landlocked country. It is approximately 466 kilometers (290 miles) from the country’s second-largest city, Samarkand.

History of Tashkent

Tashkent has a rich and varied history shaped by several major events and influences over the millennia. Originally founded more than 2,000 years ago, the city has seen periods of rule by different empires and nations.

It was initially part of territories controlled by ancient empires, such as the Achaemenid Persian Empire. The ancient “Chach” city was a crucial trading hub.

Agriculture thrived due to the fertile soil and favorable climate. Crafts like pottery and metallurgy developed, making it a diversified economic center. Numerous trade routes intersected here, establishing the groundwork for what would later become part of the Silk Road.

Tashkent experienced a critical transformation under Islamic rule in the 8th century. It became a hub for Islamic learning, arts, and science. The introduction of Islamic governance and Sharia law altered the city’s administrative structure.

Educational institutions called madrasas were established, making the city a beacon for Islamic scholarship. Additionally, Tashkent’s strategic position on the Silk Road meant it was a busy commercial center where goods like silk, spices, and precious metals were traded.

The Mongol invasion in the 13th century, led by Genghis Khan, significantly disrupted Tashkent’s progress. The city faced a period of decline as many of its treasures were looted and its infrastructure damaged.

However, the Mongols also brought a different kind of administrative efficiency, and after an initial period of hardship, the city gradually recovered. By the late medieval era, Tashkent was rebuilding and re-establishing its role as a commercial center.

Cathedral of the Dormition of the Theotokos
The Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin, established in the 19th century, stands as a symbol of the historical presence of the Russian Orthodox Church in Uzbekistan.

Further on, Tashkent integrated into the Russian Empire. Russian governance radically altered the city’s demographic makeup and architectural landscape. New Russian-style buildings, administrative centers, and Orthodox churches were built.

The transfer of the capital from Samarkand to Tashkent on August 17, 1930, was a pivotal moment in the city’s history. This move signified Tashkent’s elevated importance within Uzbekistan and ushered in a new phase of development and modernization, particularly under Soviet rule.

The introduction of the railway system in the late 19th century connected Tashkent with other major cities, facilitating more accessible transport of goods and people. Russian rule also saw the introduction of modern education systems and governance structures.

After the Russian Revolution, Tashkent became part of the newly formed Soviet Union. The city underwent rapid modernization, emphasizing industrial development and secular education.

A tragic earthquake in 1966 led to substantial destruction but also resulted in a rebuilding effort that saw modern buildings and public spaces being constructed, mainly in the Soviet architectural style. The city also became more cosmopolitan as people from different parts of the Soviet Union moved there for work or study.

Tashkent Chimes, erected in the 1940s
Tashkent Chimes, erected in the 1940s, was inspired by the Moscow Kremlin’s Spasskaya Tower and has become a recognizable landmark.

With the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Tashkent assumed its role as the capital of independent Uzbekistan. Since then, the city has been juggling preserving its rich historical heritage while pushing for modernity.

Economic reforms have aimed at making Tashkent a business-friendly environment, and there’s been a resurgence in the celebration of traditional Uzbek culture, music, and crafts. It is also becoming an increasingly important player in Central Asian geopolitics and international relations.

Features of Tashkent

Tashkent New City Center, a modern development featuring state-of-the-art architecture
Tashkent New City Center, a modern development featuring state-of-the-art architecture and planning.

Tashkent captivates visitors with its architectural diversity, which serves as a living testament to the city’s rich history. From religious buildings that showcase intricate details to modern constructions with utilitarian designs, the city’s skyline tells a story of convergence and transformation.

Equally compelling is the city’s vibrant street life. Bustling markets offer a sensory experience, revealing the cultural and culinary diversity of the region. The city also has a robust cultural pulse, evident in its theaters, museums, and galleries, making it a dynamic blend of the traditional and the contemporary.

Geography and Climate

Landscape of Tashkent
Landscape of Tashkent

Hills and mountains surround Tashkent. The climate is classified as continental, meaning it experiences hot summers and cold winters. Summer temperatures can soar as high as 40 °C (104 °F), while winters can be chilly, with temperatures sometimes falling below freezing.

The city receives moderate rainfall, with the wettest months typically being March and April. The varied climate makes for various seasonal experiences, from snowfall in winter to warm, sunny days perfect for summer exploration.


Tashkent Broadway walking street, known for its artists, cafes, and vendors
Tashkent Broadway walking street, known for its artists, cafes, and vendors, serves as a casual and artistic hub for locals and tourists.

Tashkent is home to more than 2.5 million people. It’s a melting pot of ethnicities, with most of the population being Uzbek. However, you can also find significant Russian, Kazakh, and Tajik communities.

The linguistic landscape is equally diverse; while Uzbek is the official language, Russian is widely spoken and understood. The city’s populace is generally young, with a median age in the early 30s, making it a youthful and dynamic community.


Financial District and National Bank of Uzbekistan
Financial District and National Bank of Uzbekistan, the economic backbone of Tashkent.

Tashkent is the economic powerhouse of Uzbekistan, contributing a major portion to the country’s GDP. The city has a diverse economic base, including machinery, automotive manufacturing, and food processing.

As the country’s financial center, it is home to the headquarters of numerous banks and financial institutions. Information technology and telecommunications are also rising, attracting domestic and foreign investment.

Tourism is becoming increasingly important, with visitors drawn to the city’s historical sites and cultural landmarks. Multiple international businesses have set up operations in Tashkent, reflecting its growing importance in the Central Asian economic landscape.

Things to Do and Places to See in Tashkent

Tashkent offers a rich tapestry of experiences, beckoning visitors to explore its many highlights. Here are some of the standout places and activities that have captured the hearts of travelers in Uzbekistan’s capital:

1. Amir Timur Square

Statue of the legendary tamerlane / amir temur on horseback
Statue of Tamerlane in Amir Timur Square: honoring Timur, a 14th-century Turco-Mongol conqueror.

Amir Timur Square is not just a geographic location; it’s the heartbeat of Tashkent, connecting people, history, and culture. Serving as a meeting point for locals and a must-see for tourists, the square is a window into Uzbekistan’s historical and modern aspects.

Whether interested in history, architecture, or simply people-watching, Amir Timur Square has something for everyone. The area is frequently the site of public events, concerts, and festivals, allowing visitors to experience local culture firsthand.

2. Chorsu Bazaar

Chorsu Bazaar, one of the oldest markets in Tashkent
Chorsu Bazaar, one of the oldest markets in Tashkent.

At the crossroads of culture and commerce, Chorsu Bazaar is more than a market; it’s a sensory journey through Uzbekistan’s culinary and artisanal treasures. It is often considered the soul of Tashkent, encapsulating the city’s age-old traditions.

Chorsu Bazaar is a place where you can shop and soak in the local atmosphere. Here, you can taste traditional dishes, meet local artisans, and maybe even pick up a few words of Uzbek. If you’re interested in a hands-on cultural experience, there’s no better place in Tashkent to dive in.

3. Kukeldash Madrasah

Kukeldash Madrasah, built in the 16th century
Kukeldash Madrasah, built in the 16th century, is an educational institution among the most historically important madrasahs in the city.

Kukeldash Madrasah stands as a guardian of Islamic scholarship and architecture, inviting visitors to step back in time and explore its ancient corridors. The structure provides a glimpse into the Islamic educational traditions of the 16th century.

It’s an immersive experience for those interested in Islamic architecture and history. Regular guided tours are available, providing insights into the madrasah’s past and its academic significance. The tranquility also makes it a nice contrast to the city’s more bustling areas.

4. Navoi Opera Theatre

Navoi Opera Theatre, named after the famous Uzbek poet Alisher Navoi
Navoi Opera Theatre, named after the famous Uzbek poet Alisher Navoi.

Navoi Opera Theatre is a pinnacle of artistic achievement and a grand testament to Uzbekistan’s commitment to the arts. The building is an architectural wonder, symbolizing the nation’s blend of Eastern and Western cultures.

The theatre offers a rich program that appeals to fans of both classical and modern performances. Even if you’re not a theater aficionado, the interior is worth a visit for its grandeur alone. Tours are often available, offering behind-the-scenes insights into this cultural marvel.

5. Tashkent Metro Stations

Tashkent Metro Stations renowned for its ornate station designs
Tashkent Metro Stations, opened to the public since 1977, is renowned for its ornate station designs.

The Tashkent Metro is not just a mode of transport; it’s an underground art gallery, a subterranean marvel that stands as a testament to Uzbek craftsmanship. Each station tells a story through its distinct aesthetics, making commuting an unexpectedly enriching experience.

Navigating through the Tashkent Metro is a cultural experience in itself. Besides being a convenient way to get around the city, it offers a unique glimpse into Uzbek artistry and history. Don’t forget to watch for the details; each station has its own story to tell.

6. Hazrati Imam Complex

Hazrati Imam Complex, one of the world's oldest copies of the Quran
Hazrati Imam Complex, a religious and cultural complex, one of the world’s oldest copies of the Quran.

Serving as a spiritual haven in Tashkent, the Hazrati Imam Complex is more than a religious site. It is an amalgamation of culture, history, and spirituality, all set against the backdrop of stunning Islamic architecture.

Visitors will find multiple buildings within the complex, including a mosque, mausoleum, and library. These structures are adorned with intricate tilework and calligraphy, imbuing a sense of calm and reverence. The area is often filled with peaceful prayers and scholarly discussions.

7. Independence Square

Independence Square, commemorating Uzbekistan's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991
Independence Square, commemorating Uzbekistan’s independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.

Independence Square has various monuments and fountains that symbolize Uzbek history and culture. It features pathways lined with trees, making it an urban oasis amidst the concrete and glass of the city. Large events, military parades, and national celebrations often occur here, making it a focal point for community gatherings.

Visiting Independence Square provides a different attraction—it’s not just a place to stroll and take pictures but also a spot where you can experience the nation’s unity and pride firsthand. The square often hosts open-air exhibitions, cultural events, and other festivities, especially during national holidays.

8. Tashkent Tower

Tashkent Tower, the tallest structure in Central Asia
At 375 meters, Tashkent Tower is the tallest structure in Central Asia and serves as a TV tower and an observation point offering panoramic views.

As one of the most prominent structures in Tashkent, the Tashkent Tower serves as both a telecommunications hub and a vantage point for unparalleled city views. It showcases the blend of technology and tourism, standing as a modern marvel in the skyline.

The tower is a popular destination for those seeking a different perspective of Tashkent. Its observation deck offers panoramic vistas that allow you to see the city in all its glory. Whether you’re a photography enthusiast or simply someone who enjoys a good view, Tashkent Tower should not be missed.

9. Museum of Applied Arts

Museum of Applied Arts, established in the early 20th century
Museum of Applied Arts, established in the early 20th century, showcases traditional Uzbek crafts such as embroidery, ceramics, and wood carving.

The Museum of Applied Arts is a repository of objects and a living narrative of Uzbekistan’s rich artisanal traditions. It is an interactive cultural experience, inviting visitors to explore the craftsmanship passed down through generations.

For anyone interested in handicrafts, design, or history, the Museum of Applied Arts provides an enriching experience. The venue often hosts live demonstrations, workshops, and temporary exhibitions, giving visitors the chance to view and understand the intricacies involved in creating these works of art.

10. Minor Mosque

Minor Mosque, known for its striking blue dome and white marble structure
Minor Mosque, known for its striking blue dome and white marble structure, is a relatively new addition to Tashkent’s religious landscape, opened in 2014.

Distinguished by its contemporary design, Minor Mosque is a peaceful sanctuary that welcomes worshipers and tourists. It stands as a representation of modern religious architecture in Uzbekistan.

This mosque offers a tranquil setting for quiet contemplation, regardless of faith. For architecture enthusiasts, the modern design contrasts with the city’s more historical religious sites. Tours are available, often conducted by knowledgeable guides who can explain the mosque’s features and significance in greater detail.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is Tashkent safe for tourists?

Yes, Tashkent is considered a very safe city for both residents and tourists. Crimes, particularly those against tourists, are rare in Tashkent and in Uzbekistan in general.

The city has a well-trained police force, and security measures are typically in place at major tourist attractions, hotels, and other public places. However, as with any other city, it’s always a good idea to exercise common sense and remain aware of your surroundings.

What is the best time to visit Tashkent?

The most pleasant months to visit Tashkent are generally April to June and September to November, when the weather is mild and conducive to outdoor activities.

What language is spoken in Tashkent?

The official language is Uzbek, but Russian is also widely spoken and understood. English is increasingly common in tourist areas and among younger people.

What currency is used in Tashkent?

The Uzbekistani Som is the local currency. Credit cards are accepted at many hotels and restaurants, but carrying some cash for smaller establishments or street vendors is advisable.

How do I get around Tashkent?

The city has a well-developed public transportation system, including buses, trolleybuses, and a metro system. Taxis are also readily available and are generally inexpensive.

Is the tap water safe to drink?

It’s generally advisable to drink bottled or boiled water, as tap water may not be safe for consumption, particularly for visitors who are not accustomed to the local water supply.

Are there any local customs or etiquette I should be aware of?

Tashkent is a city with deep cultural and religious traditions. It’s respectful to dress modestly, particularly when visiting religious sites. Always ask for permission before taking photographs of people or their property.

What food should I try in Tashkent?

Uzbek cuisine offers a variety of options, but some must-try dishes include plov, shashlik, and manti. You’ll find a range of eateries, from upscale restaurants to street vendors, serving local fare.

Where can I shop for souvenirs?

You’ll find numerous bazaars and markets in Tashkent where you can shop for traditional Uzbek souvenirs like ceramics, textiles, and spices. Some popular shopping spots include Chorsu Bazaar and Alay Bazaar.

Final Thoughts

Tashkent offers a unique blend of historical richness and modernity, making it a destination worth exploring. Whether you’re interested in diving into Central Asia’s intricate history, experiencing vibrant cultural traditions, or simply enjoying the contemporary amenities of a growing city, Tashkent has something for everyone.

Its exceptional safety record adds extra comfort for travelers, allowing you to explore with peace of mind. From its diverse culinary scene to its captivating landmarks, Tashkent invites visitors to immerse themselves in a multi-faceted experience that leaves a lasting impression.

Image Sources and Copyright Information
  • Political Map of Uzbekistan Highlighting Capital: © Peter Hermes Furian/Shutterstock
  • Pushpin on Tashkent Location Map: © Quirinius/Shutterstock
  • Blue and White Cathedral with Golden Dome under Clear Sky: © Marina Rich/Shutterstock
  • Sunny Day at Tashkent Chimes Tower: © saiko3p/Shutterstock
  • Night View of Tashkent City Center with Illuminated Buildings Reflecting on Water: © Kadagan/Shutterstock
  • Aerial View of Tashkent Cityscape: © Eugene_Photo/Shutterstock
  • Pedestrians on a Tree-Lined Boulevard with Clock Tower: © Marina Rich/Shutterstock
  • Commercial District in Tashkent with Modern Buildings and Landscaped Garden: © Marina Rich/Shutterstock
  • Equestrian Statue in Amir Timur Square: © Munzir Rosdi/Shutterstock
  • Dome of Chorsu Bazaar with Blue Sky: © tache/Shutterstock
  • Kukeldash Madrasah under blue sky: © Kadagan/Shutterstock
  • Opera House Facade with Fountain in Foreground: © saiko3p/Shutterstock
  • Independence Square Monument in Tashkent under Blue Sky: © V. Smirnov/Shutterstock
  • Tashkent Tower at Sunset: © monticello/Shutterstock
  • Ornate Room in Museum of Applied Arts: © starmaro/Shutterstock
  • Minor Mosque on a Sunny Day: © Usmanov Ramil/Shutterstock