What is the Capital of Peru?

Lima is the capital of Peru. Lima is also Peru’s largest city and serves as Peru’s major political and economic hub.

Lima, the capital city of Peru
Lima, the capital city of Peru.

Lima offers a blend of colonial architecture, culture, and modern conveniences. It’s home to significant museums, lively markets, and exquisite culinary experiences that reflect indigenous and European influences. Lima is not only the country’s administrative center but also a vital gateway for visitors exploring the diverse landscapes of Peru.

Where is Lima?

Close-up coastal location of Lima on the map
Close-up coastal location of Lima on the map.

Lima is strategically positioned on the western coast of Peru, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. It lies within the valleys of three significant rivers: the Chillón, Rímac, and Lurín.

Specifically, Lima is situated at approximately 12°02′36″S latitude and 77°01′42″W longitude. This coastal location places the city close to the port of Callao, a vital hub for maritime activities.

History of Lima

Lima has a rich and complex history that has shaped its present-day character.

San Francisco Convent Church, established in 1673
Basilica and Convent of San Francisco, initially established in 1546, is a historical church renowned for its stunning architecture and intricate catacombs, containing thousands of human bones and skulls.

Francisco Pizarro founded Lima on January 18, 1535, after conquering the Inca Empire. He chose a strategic location near the Rimac River, which allowed access to freshwater and the sea. The name “Ciudad de los Reyes” or “City of Kings” was chosen, reflecting the Spanish crown’s significance in this new city.

It was meant to serve as a symbol of Spanish dominance in the region. Early Lima was meticulously planned. The architecture followed the Spanish colonial style, and the city was organized around a central square. Churches, government buildings, and houses were constructed to reflect European traditions.

Lima flourished as the administrative and political center of the Spanish Viceroyalty in South America. The city’s wealth and influence grew thanks to trade and its strategic coastal location. Cultural life in Lima was vibrant during this period.

Buildings in Lima featuring the popular colonial balconies
Buildings in Lima featuring the popular colonial balconies, a symbol of the city’s colonial past, reflect Spanish and Moorish architectural influences that date back to the 17th and 18th centuries.

It became home to the first university in the Americas, the University of San Marcos, founded in 1551 and became a center of arts and literature. The influence of indigenous culture began to blend with Spanish customs. This fusion is still evident in Lima’s culinary, architectural, and cultural practices.

Independence Day

The early 19th century saw growing discontent with Spanish rule. Lima became a hotbed of revolutionary ideas and activities. On July 28, 1821, José de San Martín proclaimed Peru’s independence in Lima.

This proclamation was a key milestone, not just for Lima but for the entire nation. Independence brought challenges such as economic restructuring and political instability, but Lima remained a crucial center for governance and innovation.

Following independence, Lima began to transform itself into a modern city. The adoption of European urban planning and architectural styles was prevalent. The city’s cultural and economic life flourished, but political turmoil sometimes hindered growth and led to social challenges. Efforts were made to preserve Lima’s historical heritage while embracing new technologies and ideologies.

Lima’s location makes it susceptible to earthquakes. The devastating earthquake of 1746 nearly destroyed the city, leading to significant rebuilding.

The rebuilding phase was marked by resilience and innovation, with new construction techniques and urban planning to minimize future risks. Other earthquakes, including those in 1940, tested Lima’s resolve but led to further development and modernization.

The Colón Theater in Lima, inaugurated in 1914
The Colón Theater in Lima, inaugurated in 1914, has since become vital to Lima’s artistic scene before its decline.

The 20th century saw a massive influx of migrants to Lima from rural areas, leading to rapid urban expansion. Industrialization transformed the city’s economy, creating opportunities and challenges, including housing shortages and social inequality. Modern Lima emerged with new neighborhoods, transportation systems, and a spirited urban life reflecting a mix of traditions and modernity.

Today, Lima is a dynamic global city, playing a pivotal role in international commerce, culture, and politics. The city’s history of cultural fusion continues to thrive, making it a melting pot that attracts tourists and scholars alike.

Contemporary challenges such as environmental sustainability and social equity are part of Lima’s current agenda, but its rich history continues to guide its growth and development.

Features of Lima

Skyline of Lima at night
Skyline of Lima at night, reflecting a mix of modernity and tradition.

A fascinating blend of historical and modern features characterizes Lima. One of Lima’s most notable aspects is its rich architectural heritage. This includes grand colonial-era cathedrals and palaces that stand alongside modern skyscrapers.

Culturally, Lima is a thriving hub for arts, music, and gastronomy. The city is renowned for its culinary scene, with various influences ranging from traditional Andean cuisine to Asian fusion. Lima’s restaurants are known globally, and its street food is equally celebrated.

Geography and Climate

The Pacific Coastline of Lima
The Pacific Coastline of Lima, which profoundly influences its mild climate and creates a unique blend of city and coastal landscapes.

Lima’s geography is defined by its location in the coastal desert of Peru. Despite its proximity to the sea, the Andes Mountains block much of the moisture from the Amazon Basin, resulting in a surprisingly arid climate.

The city’s weather is often overcast, particularly during the winter months from June to September, giving rise to a phenomenon known as “garúa,” a persistent coastal fog. Temperatures in Lima are relatively mild, with the summer (December to March) being warmer and sunnier and the winter cooler and more humid.


Rimac, a lively street, interweaving daily life, commerce, and history in the heart of the city
Rimac, a lively street, interweaving daily life, commerce, and history in the heart of the city.

The population of Lima is diverse and multifaceted, reflecting the city’s role as a melting pot of various cultural influences. As of recent estimates, the city’s population is over 10 million, making it not only the largest city in Peru but one of the largest in South America.

People in Lima, or “Limeños,” come from various ethnic backgrounds, including mestizo, indigenous, European, African, and Asian descent. This mix of cultures has contributed to the city’s vital traditions, language, and culinary scene. The urbanization of Lima has also led to challenges, including social inequality and housing shortages, but its diversity remains a defining characteristic.


Modern highrise buildings in San Isidro District
Modern highrise buildings in San Isidro District, known as Lima’s financial center.

Lima’s economy is the driving force behind Peru’s overall economic health, contributing a substantial portion of the country’s GDP. It is a hub for various industries, including manufacturing, finance, retail, and tourism.

Lima’s port, the Port of Callao, is one of the most important on the South American Pacific coast, facilitating significant international trade. The city is also home to various multinational corporations and has a burgeoning tech and startup scene.

Tourism is vital to Lima’s economy, attracting visitors to its historical sites, culinary delights, and cultural attractions. The city’s strategic location as a gateway to other parts of Peru adds to its appeal to both domestic and international travelers.

The financial sector in Lima is robust, with the Lima Stock Exchange being one of the most important in Latin America. Various banking, insurance, and financial services operate within the city, underscoring Lima’s role as an economic powerhouse.

Though Lima’s economy is diverse and thriving, it’s not without challenges, including income disparities and dependency on certain export commodities. However, ongoing infrastructure and business development investments continue to fuel growth, making Lima a critical economic player in Peru and across the South American region.

Things to Do and Places to See in Lima

Lima, with its blend of historic charm and modern vibrancy, offers many must-see attractions for tourists.

1. Historic Centre of Lima

Historic Centre of Lima, reflecting Lima's rich colonial heritage
Historic Centre of Lima, reflecting Lima’s rich colonial heritage, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988.

The Historic Centre of Lima, the heart of the Peruvian capital, reflects the city’s rich colonial past. This area comprises historical landmarks such as the Cathedral, Archbishop’s Palace, and various colonial buildings.

The Cathedral, dating back to 1535, is a focal point, while the neighboring Archbishop’s Palace showcases ornate wooden balconies. Many buildings blend Spanish and Moorish influences, contributing to the area’s unique character.

Visitors can explore the legacy of Lima’s past, wandering through cobbled streets and taking in the historical ambiance. Guided tours often explore the area’s history, architecture, and cultural significance. Dining at a traditional Peruvian restaurant or sipping coffee at a local café adds to the authentic experience.

2. Larco Museum

Larco Museum, which houses an impressive collection of pre-Columbian artifacts
Larco Museum, which houses an impressive collection of pre-Columbian artifacts, provides a glimpse into Peru’s ancient civilizations.

The Larco Museum, housed in an 18th-century colonial mansion, offers an in-depth look at Peru’s pre-Columbian history. With an impressive collection, including gold and silver artifacts, ceramics, and textiles, the museum provides insights into ancient civilizations that shaped the region.

The museum’s exhibits are arranged chronologically, guiding visitors through different periods and cultures. One highlight is the gallery dedicated to erotic pottery, a testament to ancient Peruvian craftsmanship and beliefs. The museum’s gardens, filled with native plants, provide a tranquil setting for contemplation.

3. Miraflores District

A popular walking spot in the Miraflores District
The Malecón, a clifftop walkway, offers breathtaking views of the Pacific Ocean.

Miraflores is one of Lima’s most vibrant districts known for its gardens, cultural venues, and ocean views. It’s a hub for locals and tourists, blending modern living with traditional Peruvian charm. Well-maintained parks, high-end shopping centers, and excellent restaurants mark miraflores.

Whether interested in shopping, dining, or simply strolling by the sea, visitors will find something to enjoy in Miraflores. The district’s lively atmosphere and oceanfront setting make it a favorite place for relaxation and entertainment.

4. Barranco District

Barranco District, famous for its bohemian charm, home to artists, musicians, and Lima's vibrant nightlife
Barranco District, famous for its bohemian charm, home to artists, musicians, and Lima’s vibrant nightlife.

Barranco is a haven for creatives and celebrates Peruvian culture and arts. Nestled next to Miraflores, Barranco maintains a unique character, filled with art galleries, boutiques, and cozy cafes. The Puente de los Suspiros (Bridge of Sighs) is a romantic spotBarranco is perfect for those looking to delve into Lima’s artistic side.

Visitors can explore galleries, attend live music performances, or wander charming streets. The district’s energy, especially after dark, adds to its allure. often associated with love and local legends.

5. Magic Water Circuit (Parque de la Reserva)

Magic Water Circuit, the world's largest fountain complex in a public park
Magic Water Circuit, the world’s largest fountain complex in a public park.

The Magic Water Circuit in Lima’s Parque de la Reserva is a dazzling water, light, and music display. The park features 13 interactive fountains, each with its unique design and light show. From a tunnel of water to fountains that dance to music, it offers endless fascination.

Ideal for families and couples alike, the Magic Water Circuit provides entertainment for all ages. Visitors can walk through the fountains, enjoy synchronized light shows, and even control some water features. The spectacle is both enchanting and refreshing.

6. Museo de Arte de Lima (MALI)

Interior of Museo de Arte Lima, hosting a diverse collection of traditional and contemporary Peruvian art
Interior of Museo de Arte Lima, hosting a diverse collection of traditional and contemporary Peruvian art.

The Museo de Arte Lima (MALI) is one of Peru’s premier art institutions, showcasing a diverse collection that spans 3,000 years. Housed in a striking Beaux-Arts building, MALI offers a comprehensive overview of Peruvian art from ancient to modern works.

The museum’s galleries are home to pre-Columbian textiles, colonial-era silverwork, modern paintings, sculptures, and more. Temporary exhibitions keep the content fresh and engaging, featuring local and international artists.

7. Parque de las Leyendas

Monkey Island within the Leyendas Park, Lima's first zoo
Monkey Island within the Leyendas Park, Lima’s first zoo.

Leyendas Park offers an intriguing glimpse into Peru’s diverse ecosystems. Monkey Island, one of the park’s highlights, invites visitors to observe and learn about various primate species in a setting that emulates their natural habitat.

Spanning 64 acres, Leyendas Park includes replicas of Peru’s coastal, mountainous, and jungle regions. The park offers an educational and entertaining outing for families, schools, and nature enthusiasts. Visitors can also explore other animal exhibits and enjoy picnics, paddle boating, or guided tours.

8. Huaca Pucllana

Huaca Pucllana, located in Miraflores, is an ancient adobe pyramid believed to date back to 700 A.D.
Huaca Pucllana, located in Miraflores, is an ancient adobe pyramid believed to date back to 700 A.D.

Huaca Pucllana’s archaeological site is a testament to the Lima culture and offers a glimpse into pre-Inca civilization. The pyramid, made of thousands of adobe bricks, was once a ceremonial and administrative center. The site includes a small museum displaying artifacts, and guided tours provide insights into the complex’s history and significance.

Huaca Pucllana offers a unique opportunity to explore ancient history amid modern Lima. Visitors can walk the grounds, join informative guided tours, and enjoy a meal at the on-site restaurant overlooking the ruins.

9. MATE – Museo Mario Testino

MATE, Lima, dedicated to the famous Peruvian photographer Mario Testino
MATE, Lima, dedicated to the famous Peruvian photographer Mario Testino, showcasing his iconic fashion and celebrity photographs.

The Museo Mario Testino, or MATE, is located in the Barranco district; the museum showcases Testino’s iconic images of celebrities, models, and traditional Peruvian dress. The museum’s galleries include portraits of international stars and collections dedicated to Peruvian culture. The building, a renovated 19th-century mansion, adds to the artistic atmosphere.

Fashion and photography enthusiasts will find inspiration in Testino’s striking visuals. The museum hosts temporary exhibitions by other artists, lectures, and events, creating a dynamic space for creative expression.

10. Relax on Nearby Beaches

Sunset at Punta Hermosa Beach, a popular spot for swimming and relaxation
Sunset at Punta Hermosa Beach, a popular spot for swimming and relaxation.

Lima’s coastal location allows locals and visitors to enjoy stunning beaches. Whether for surfing, sunbathing, or taking in a sunset, the city’s top beaches provide a respite from urban life and an opportunity to embrace the natural beauty of the Pacific coast.

  • Makaha Beach: Known for its excellent surfing conditions, Makaha Beach is a popular spot for both novice and experienced surfers. Its central location in Miraflores makes it easily accessible.
  • Playa Waikiki: Also located in Miraflores, Playa Waikiki is perfect for swimming and sunbathing. The calm waves and inviting sands make it a family-friendly option.
  • Punta Hermosa: A renowned surfing destination, Punta Hermosa is situated just south of Lima. Its sandy shores and consistent waves make it ideal for surfing enthusiasts or those looking to enjoy a relaxing day by the sea.

11. Larcomar

Larcomar Shopping Mall, opened in 1998
Larcomar Shopping Mall, opened in 1998, is a complex that includes theaters, restaurants, shops, a bowling alley, and dance clubs.

Perched on the cliffs of Miraflores, Larcomar Shopping Mall offers a shopping experience like no other. Opened in 1998, the mall’s unique architecture and oceanfront location make it a standout attraction in Lima. The mall’s terraced design provides unobstructed ocean views, creating an open, airy ambiance that sets it apart from traditional shopping centers.

Larcomar provides something for everyone, from shopping for international brands to dining with a view or enjoying entertainment. It’s a place where visitors can shop, eat, and relax while taking in the beauty of the Pacific coast.

Parque Kennedy

Kennedy Park, Lima, named after President John F. Kennedy
Kennedy Park, named after President John F. Kennedy.

Kennedy Park is more than just a green space in Lima’s bustling urban landscape. It’s a lively social hub where locals and tourists gather to enjoy outdoor activities, art, and local cuisine. The park has manicured lawns, pathways, sculptures, and a central amphitheater hosting concerts and events.

Kennedy Park is also known for its resident population of friendly cats that freely roam the park, becoming an attraction of their own. Visitors to Kennedy Park can explore artisan markets, savor street food, or simply relax on a bench and people-watch. With its natural beauty and cultural vibrancy blend, the park is a microcosm of Lima’s friendly and energetic spirit.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the best time to visit Lima?

The best time to visit Lima is during the summer, from December to March when the weather is warmer and sunnier. However, Lima’s mild climate makes it a year-round destination.

Is Lima safe for tourists?

Like any significant city, Lima has areas that are safer than others. Tourists can enjoy a safe visit by taking common-sense precautions, such as not displaying valuable items and using registered taxis.

What’s the currency in Lima?

The currency used in Lima is the Peruvian Sol (PEN). Credit cards are widely accepted, and ATMs are readily available.

What food should I try in Lima?

Lima offers several authentic traditional dishes that reflect its rich culinary heritage, influenced by its coastal geography, diverse cultures, and historical connections, some of which include:
Ceviche: Often considered Peru’s national dish, ceviche consists of fresh, raw fish marinated in lime juice, chili peppers, and onions.
Lomo Saltado: This popular Peruvian stir-fry combines marinated beef strips with onions, tomatoes, and fried potatoes.
Aji de Gallina: A comforting and creamy chicken stew, aji de gallina is made with shredded chicken in a rich sauce of ground walnuts, cheese, and aji amarillo (yellow chili pepper).
Anticuchos: These skewered and grilled meat delicacies are popular street food in Lima.

How do I get around Lima?

Public buses, taxis, and ride-sharing services are common ways to get around Lima. Tourists can also explore many areas on foot or rent bicycles.

What should I wear in Lima?

Dress in Lima is generally casual but modest. Layering is wise as temperatures can vary. A light jacket is useful for cooler evenings.

Where can I experience Lima’s nightlife?

Neighborhoods like Miraflores and Barranco are known for their lively nightlife, with numerous bars, clubs, and live music venues.

Can I visit Machu Picchu from Lima?

Lima serves as a gateway for many tourists heading to Machu Picchu. Flights are available to Cusco, where trains and tours to Machu Picchu can be arranged.

What shopping opportunities are there in Lima?

Lima offers various shopping opportunities, from modern malls to traditional markets. Look for unique Peruvian products like alpaca wool clothing and handmade crafts.

Final Thoughts

Whether exploring the city’s historic heart, enjoying ocean views in modern neighborhoods, sampling world-renowned gastronomy, or delving into art and archaeology, visitors to Lima will find a city brimming with experiences and discoveries.

Lima is worth visiting for those seeking a South American city that offers tradition and modernity, promising memories and connections that resonate long after the journey ends.

Image Sources and Copyright Information
  • Map of Peru with Bordering Countries: © Peter Hermes Furian/Shutterstock
  • Map Pin on Lima, Peru: © andriano.cz/Shutterstock
  • Colonial Convent Facade in San Francisco: © javarman/Shutterstock
  • Colonial-Era Balconies in Lima: © Diego Grandi/Shutterstock
  • Colon Theater in Lima, Peru: © Atosan/Shutterstock
  • Lima Cityscape at Night: © Christian Vinces/Shutterstock
  • Lima Coastal Cliffs and Skyline: © badahos/Shutterstock
  • Pedestrian Street in Lima with Mountain View: © Simon Mayer/Shutterstock
  • Aerial View of San Isidro District with Modern Skyscrapers: © Christian Vinces/Shutterstock
  • Historic Center of Lima with Cathedral and Plaza: © Christian Vinces/Shutterstock
  • Facade of Larco Museum with Peruvian Flag: © saiko3p/Shutterstock
  • Coastal Park Walkway in Miraflores District: © ireneuke/Shutterstock
  • Evening in Barranco District with Colorful Buildings and Street Art: © Christian Vinces/Shutterstock
  • Illuminated Water Fountains at Night: © Paolo Costa/Shutterstock
  • Visitors Inside the Lima Art Museum: © Peruphotart/Shutterstock
  • Monkey Island Habitat at Leyendas Park: © AgainErick/Wikimedia | CC BY-SA 4.0 International
  • Adobe Brick Pyramid Structure: © Simon Mayer/Shutterstock
  • Facade of MATE – Mario Testino Museum in Lima, Peru: © Milagrosip/Wikimedia | CC BY-SA 4.0 International
  • Beach Day at Punta Hermosa: © Arthurs perspective/Shutterstock
  • Coastal Shopping Center with Paraglider: © Jess Kraft/Shutterstock
  • Sunny Day at Kennedy Park, Lima: © Kirill Neiezhmakov/Shutterstock