What is the Capital of Madagascar?

Antananarivo is the capital of Madagascar. It’s also the largest city in Madagascar and its political, economic, and cultural hub.

Antananarivo, the capital city of Madagascar
Antananarivo, the capital city of Madagascar.

Antananarivo, known for its vibrant markets, is a city’s rapid growth and urbanization, with traces of its historical past still visible and several preserved colonial-era buildings and historical sites.

Where is Antananarivo?

Location of Antananarivo in Madagascar on the map
Location of Antananarivo in Madagascar on the map.

Antananarivo is located in the central part of the island nation of Madagascar, which is off the southeastern coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean.

The city is in the Central Highlands region, characterized by its hilly terrain. It is approximately 1,280 meters (4,199 feet) above sea level, making it one of the highest capitals in the world. The Ikopa and the Misaiky rivers cross the city, enhancing its natural beauty.

The geographical location of Antananarivo has influenced its climate, resulting in a relatively mild tropical highland climate, with a rainy season from November to April and a dry season from May to October.

History of Antananarivo

Antananarivo has a rich history that dates back to at least the 16th century.

The city was founded around 1625 by King Andrianjaka, a ruler of the Merina people, who named it “Antananarivo,” meaning “City of the Thousand” after the 1,000 guards assigned to protect it. Antananarivo quickly grew in prominence, eventually becoming the capital of the Merina kingdom. The kingdom was instrumental in unifying Madagascar under a single ruler for the first time in the early 19th century.

Andafiavaratra Palace, residence of Rainilaiarivony, the Prime Minister of Madagascar
Andafiavaratra Palace, residence of Rainilaiarivony, the Prime Minister of Madagascar from 1864 to 1895.

During the colonial era 1896, Madagascar became a French colony, and Antananarivo was made the colonial administrative center. The French built many infrastructure projects during this time, including roads, railways, and public buildings, many of which can still be seen in the city today.

Madagascar achieved independence from France in 1960, and Antananarivo has since remained the capital of the independent Republic of Madagascar. Since independence, the city has seen significant population growth and urban development.

Recent Developments

In the 21st century, Antananarivo has been the center of numerous political events in Madagascar, including protests and political crises. Despite these challenges, Antananarivo remains an important corner in the country’s development.

One of the most important landmarks in the city is the Rova, a royal palace complex that served as the home of the rulers of the Kingdom of Imerina. The original wooden palace was largely destroyed by fire in 1995, but the stone walls and some other structures remain.

Features of Antananarivo

Sunset featuring the landscape of Antananarivo
Sunset featuring the landscape of Antananarivo.

Antananarivo is a city with many distinctive features that make it unique.

Geography and Climate

The geography of Antananarivo is one of its most defining features. As part of the Central Highlands, it is characterized by multiple hills on which the city is built, offering panoramic views of the surrounding landscapes. The presence of the Ikopa and Misaiky rivers further shapes it.

Skyline on a cloudy day in the city of Antananarivo
Skyline on a cloudy day in the city of Antananarivo.

Due to its altitude, Antananarivo’s climate is classified as a subtropical highland climate. It exhibits cooler temperatures than much of the rest of Madagascar, with the average daily temperature ranging from 12.6 °C (54.7 °F) to 27.3 °C (81.1 °F). Precipitation is concentrated in the summer, with December through March being the wettest, while the winter months from May to October are considerably drier.


Crowded streets in the city of Antananarivo
Crowded streets in the city of Antananarivo.

Antananarivo has a population of over 2.6 million people. The city is predominantly inhabited by the Merina ethnic group, one of the eighteen Malagasy ethnic groups. However, it also hosts a diverse mix of other ethnic groups nationwide. The official languages of Madagascar, Malagasy and French are widely spoken in the city.

Antananarivo also faces challenges associated with rapid urbanization, including overcrowding, housing issues, and inadequate infrastructure. Despite these challenges, it remains a vibrant city with a rich cultural life.


Commercial area of Antananarivo, the Upper Town (Haute-Ville)
Commercial area of Antananarivo, the Upper Town (Haute-Ville).

Antananarivo serves as the economic hub of Madagascar. The city’s economy is diverse, with significant contributions from the services sector, manufacturing, and agriculture. It is home to many of Madagascar’s largest businesses and banks, and most international companies operating in Madagascar have their headquarters in the city.

The services sector in Antananarivo includes telecommunications, banking, transportation, and tourism. The manufacturing sector, meanwhile, focuses on products such as textiles, processed food, and tobacco.

Agriculture also plays an essential role in the economy within the city and the surrounding region. Rice is the primary crop, reflecting its central role in the Malagasy diet. Other agricultural products include vegetables, fruits, and poultry.

However, as of 2021, Antananarivo, like the rest of Madagascar, faces significant economic challenges, including poverty, financial instability, and a reliance on foreign aid.

Things to Do and Places to See in Antananarivo

Antananarivo offers an array of activities and attractions, ensuring there is something for everyone to enjoy. Let’s explore some of the top sites and attractions that make the capital city an exciting destination to visit.

1. Visit the Rova

The Rova of Antananarivo
The Rova of Antananarivo, a royal palace complex home to the monarchy of the Kingdom of Imerina in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

The Rova, also known as the Manjakamiadana or the Queen’s Palace, is one of Antananarivo’s most iconic landmarks. It is a royal palace complex on the highest hill in the capital, offering breathtaking panoramic city views. The Rova was the center of the Merina Kingdom and retains significant cultural, historical, and spiritual significance.

Despite a fire in 1995 that devastated most of the wooden structures, several stone buildings remain, and some parts have been reconstructed. A visit to the Rova offers insight into the history and traditional architecture of Madagascar, and the complex is a must-see for its symbolic and cultural importance.

2. Explore Lemurs’ Park

Free-roaming lemurs inside the Lemurs' Park
Free-roaming lemurs inside the Lemurs’ Park, home to nine unique species of lemurs.

Located approximately 22 kilometers from Antananarivo, Lemurs’ Park is a private reserve where visitors can encounter various species of lemurs in an open, natural setting. These include the Ring-tailed Lemur, Coquerel’s Sifaka, and the Black and White Ruffed Lemur.

The reserve is committed to conservation efforts and has a successful lemur breeding program. Walking through the beautiful park with its lush vegetation, visitors can observe these fascinating creatures up close, learn about their habits, and even participate in feeding times. It’s an excellent opportunity to see Madagascar’s endemic primates, making it a popular attraction for families.

3. Discover Ambohimanga Hill

Ambohimanga Hill UNESCO World Heritage site
Ambohimanga Hill, declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2001.

Ambohimanga Hill is a historical village that served as the home of the pre-colonial Kingdom of Madagascar. Located about 20 kilometers northeast of Antananarivo, the site holds immense cultural and spiritual significance for the Malagasy people. It’s a well-preserved example of the Merina royal tradition, with many ancient structures, royal tombs, sacred basins, and archaeological relics.

The tranquil hilltop location offers stunning views of the surrounding countryside, making it a peaceful retreat from the bustling city. The area is steeped in local legends and traditions, providing a fascinating glimpse into the country’s past.

4. Visit Lake Mantasoa

Lake Mantasoa is a man-made reservoir
Lake Mantasoa is a man-made reservoir during the reign of Queen Ranavalona I.

About 60 kilometers east of Antananarivo lies Lake Mantasoa, an artificial reservoir created in the 19th century. The lake and its surrounding area offer a picturesque setting for various outdoor activities. Visitors can enjoy hiking trails around the lake, fishing, and boating.

Several picnic spots are perfect for a peaceful lunch surrounded by nature. The area around the lake is also steeped in history, with old industrial buildings from Madagascar’s early industrialization, including a former ironworks factory.

5. Stroll around Analakely Market

Analakely Market, the largest open-air market in Antananarivo
Analakely Market, the largest open-air market in Antananarivo.

For a taste of local life in Antananarivo, there’s no better place than the bustling Analakely Market. The market is in the city’s heart and offers various goods, from fresh fruits and vegetables to local spices, handicrafts, textiles, and souvenirs.

Exploring the market’s narrow aisles is an experience filled with colorful sights, aromatic scents, and the energetic sounds of vendors selling their wares. This vibrant market offers a unique insight into Antananarivo’s residents’ daily life and culture.

6. Explore Tsimbazaza Zoo

Botanical garden inside the Tsimbazaza Zoo
Botanical garden inside the Tsimbazaza Zoo

Tsimbazaza Zoo is Antananarivo’s main zoological and botanical garden. Here, you can see a wide array of Madagascar’s unique flora and fauna, including several species of lemurs, fossas (a cat-like carnivorous mammal), chameleons, and many bird species.

The botanical garden section hosts a variety of local and exotic plant species. Tsimbazaza is not just a recreational space; it’s also a center of scientific research and conservation efforts.

The zoo serves an educational purpose, helping visitors and locals understand the importance of biodiversity and conservation. Information boards and guides provide valuable information about the animals and their habitats.

7. Tsarasaotra Park

Tsarasaotra Park, recognized sanctuary for threatened species of Malagasy waterbirds
Tsarasaotra Park, recognized sanctuary for threatened species of Malagasy waterbirds.

Tsarasaotra Park, also known as Lake Alarobia, is a haven for bird watchers. Situated in the heart of Antananarivo, it is an important site for local and migratory birds, with over 60 bird species, many of which are endemic to Madagascar.

The park includes several lakes and is classified as a Ramsar site, recognizing it as a wetland of international importance. Visitors can enjoy peaceful walks along the paths, observing the various bird species and the beautiful flora.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the best time to visit Antananarivo?

The best time to visit Antananarivo is during the dry season, from May to October. The weather is generally mild and more suitable for sightseeing and outdoor activities.

Is Antananarivo safe for tourists?

It is essential to prioritize personal safety while visiting Antananarivo. It is advisable to exercise increased caution and vigilance and avoid walking alone, especially at night, as incidents targeting foreigners have been reported.

Being mindful of pickpockets, petty theft, and scams is also crucial. Staying vigilant, keeping belongings secure, and being cautious of individuals attempting to deceive or extort money are all important steps to help ensure a safe and enjoyable experience in Antananarivo.

What is the food like in Antananarivo?

Malagasy cuisine is a mix of African, Arab, and French influences. Rice is a staple, accompanied by various side dishes, including meats, vegetables, and sometimes seafood. Street food, including local snacks like ‘koba’ (a sweet snack made from rice, peanuts, and honey), is also popular.

What is a must-try dish in Antananarivo?

One must-try dish in Antananarivo is “Romazava.” Romazava is considered the national dish of Madagascar and is a flavorful and hearty stew made with various ingredients.

The dish typically includes meat, beef, pork, or chicken, cooked with leafy greens like spinach or young cassava leaves and flavored with garlic, ginger, onions, and other spices. It is often accompanied by rice, a Malagasy cuisine staple.

How can I get around Antananarivo?

There are several ways to get around in Antananarivo. These include taxis, local buses known as ‘taxi-be,’ and walking. For longer distances, car rentals and domestic flights are available.

What currency is used in Antananarivo?

The currency of Madagascar is the Malagasy ariary. Credit cards are accepted in some places, but cash is often preferred, especially in smaller establishments and markets.

Are there good accommodations in Antananarivo?

Yes, Antananarivo offers a range of accommodations to suit different budgets, from luxury hotels to budget guesthouses and hostels.

Is Antananarivo a good base for exploring Madagascar?

As the capital and largest city, Antananarivo is well-connected to other parts of Madagascar by road and air. Many visitors use it as a starting point for exploring other parts of the country.

Final Thoughts

Antananarivo is an enchanting city with a fascinating history, culture, and natural beauty blend. Despite its urban challenges, it offers much for travelers seeking unique experiences. There is plenty to explore and discover with its vibrant markets, historic landmarks, diverse food scene, and nearby natural attractions such as Lemurs’ Park and Lake Mantasoa.

The city is an excellent introduction to Madagascar’s rich heritage and a gateway to the island’s unique biodiversity. So, while it might not have the conventional amenities of a tourist hotspot, the city’s charm lies in its authenticity and the warmth of its people. Overall, Antananarivo is worth a visit for those seeking an adventure off the beaten path and a deeper understanding of Malagasy history and culture.

Image Sources and Copyright Information
  • image-1013: © Mappr
  • Location Pin on Antananarivo Map: © FellowNeko/Shutterstock
  • Old Red Palace with Towers and Trees: © evenfh/Shutterstock
  • Sunset Over Antananarivo Cityscape: © Dennis van de Water/Shutterstock
  • Hillside Cityscape with Colorful Buildings under Blue Sky: © Dudarev Mikhail/Shutterstock
  • Bustling Street Scene in Antananarivo: © Cavan-Images/Shutterstock
  • Aerial View of Antananarivo Commercial District: © mastapiece/Shutterstock
  • Rova of Antananarivo in Madagascar: © milosk50/Shutterstock
  • Group of Lemurs Sitting on a Tree Branch: © Marcella Miriello/Shutterstock
  • Rural Landscape with Church and Houses: © Hajakely/Shutterstock
  • Boat on Lake Mantasoa: © Dawoon Choi/Shutterstock
  • Bustling Street Market Scene: © SweetHour/Shutterstock
  • Tropical Pond with Lush Greenery: © Andrzej Lisowski Travel/Shutterstock
  • Tranquil Lake View with Reflective Water and Overhanging Branches: © Mathieu Berthelot/Wikimedia | CC BY-SA 4.0 International