Animals in Danger of Extinction. Endangered animals are a few species of animal species that have been faced with extinction in the world.
The extinction of an animal species means that their number will decrease by not carrying out efforts to increase it and by not removing the threat elements.
Endangered animals are in the bi-annually red list of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). For a species to bein the red list, there must be less than 50 adult animals live in the world. Another category is sensitive species. The main criterion for this is that the adult population of the species is less than 1000.
International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), The Red List of Species Endangered is the most comprehensive list of endangered species of plants and animals in a particular region or country. Published by IUCN.
Scientists prepared this list to evaluate the danger of extinction of thousands of species and to warn the public and authorities. Also, the IUCN Red List has a scientific background, is the most valid source for the state of biological diversity.
Until today scientist extensively evaluated many species groups such as mammals, amphibians, birds, coral reefs and conifers. In addition to evaluating the newly recognized types, the IUCN Red List also reassesses the status of some existing species. While the condition of many creatures on the red list is improving, biodiversity is decreasing day by day. There are currently more than 93,500 species in the IUCN Red List, and more than 26,000 are in danger of extinction, 41% of them are amphibians, 34% are conifers, 33% are corals, 25% are mammals and% 13 are birds.
Why are Wild Animals in Danger of Extinction?
The continuation of life takes place according to the order of inanimate beings. The main elements of natural equilibrium and cycles are the realization of cycles of element, mineral and geographic conditions in nature.
The life emerged billions of years after the formation of the world. Cycles and balances are effective in the continuation of vitality activities.
The long-lasting desire of generations ensures that living beings live on earth for a long time. However, the physical conditions of the universe and the world still stand as an obstacle in front of the continuation of the generation only by natural means.
External factors also may disrupt the physical conditions in the world. The first agent of external factors is people. When the natural environment is damaged, the living life is also damaged. In particular, the destruction of the animal habitats of the animals endangers the generation of animals.
The Generation of Animals is in Danger of Extinction for the Following Reasons:
– Destruction of animals by obeying false beliefs,
– Killing animals because people are harmed by animals,
– People hunt for pleasure,
– Use of animals in fashion and accessory areas for the pleasure,
– Slaughtering animals for games and entertainment under the name of culture,
– As a result of battles, animals die as well as humans,
– Air, soil, water pollution killing animals,
– Natural disasters damage animals,
– To damage scientific experiments and pesticides to animals,
– Destruction of forests, desertification, desiccation of animals,
Ten Animals in Danger of Extinction
1. Malayan Tiger
Malaysian tiger, a tiger subspecies found in the southern and inner parts of the Malay Peninsula. Until 2004, human beings were not aware of the existence of this species. Currently, it has 250 individuals in the wild. Male Malaysian tigers have a length of around 2.37 m. Like the Sumatran tiger, their weight is 120 kg. Females are smaller than males. Female individuals have a length of around 2 m. Their weight is around 100 kg.
2. Indochinese Tiger
Indochina tiger, a tiger subspecies found in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is a different subspecies from the Malaysian tiger. Now there are 350 individuals in nature. Male Indochinese tigers may have a length of 2.55 m to 2.85 m. Their weights range from 150 to 195 kg. Skulls range from 31.9 cm to 36.5 cm. The average male is 2.74 m and 180 kg. Female individuals have a length of 2.30 -2.55 m. Their weight is around 100ınd130 kg. The average female has a length of 2.44 m and weighs 115 kg. The skulls of females may vary between 27,5 – 31.1 cm.
First discovered in May 1992, Saola is one of the largest zoological discoveries of the 1900’s. There is no information available. Sa’awals live only in Vietnam and Laos.
4. Bengal Tiger
Bengal tiger, a tiger subspecies of the feline family. There are 2,500 individuals in nature right now. A large male Bengal tiger can grow up to 3 meters in length. The length of females is 2.6 meters. Weight can be up to 290 kilograms in male tigers. The female tigers are around 200 kilograms. They are also very good swimmers despite their heavyweight. The length of the front teeth is between 7.5 and 10 centimeters.
5. Tapanuli Orangutan
Tapanuli orangutan is one of the orangutan species of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. It is one of the three orangutan species known with the Sumatran orangutan and Bornean orangutan. In 2017, scientists identified it as a separate species. Now there are 800 individuals in nature.
6. Black Rhino
Black rhinoceros is an animal that lives in Kenya, Tanzania, Cameroon, South Africa, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. In fact, this animal is not black, it has a color like grayish brown. The Black Rhinoceros protects itself very well thanks to its large and valuable horns. But these are the horns of endangering the species. Also, in Yemen, they use these horns as knives for the sheiks of Yemen.
Although it is said that the Chinese rhinoceros horn is good for every disease, it has no effect. The black rhinoceros is the fifth of Africa’s five elders, thanks to its horns, high speed, and large size. There are only 3,600 black rhinos in the world.
7. Sumatran Orangutan
Sumatran orangutan is one of two genera of orangutans. It is a species unique to the island of Sumatra in Indonesia and is one of three species with Tapanuli orangutan and Bornean orangutan on the island. Furthermore, Bornean is less common than the orangutan. There are 14,613 individuals in nature.
8. Indian Elephant
The Indian elephant is one of the three species of the Asian elephant and is native to the Asian mainland. There are 20,000 individuals in nature. Since 1986 Elephas maximus has been listed as one of the most endangered species with a very high risk of extinction since the population of the World Natural and Natural Resources Conservation (IUCN) has decreased by at least 50% in the last three generations (65 to 70 years). The most important threats to the species are the destruction of the living space and the fragmentation of the living space.
9. Asian Elephant
The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), one of the two elephant species living, is the only living member of the genus Elephas. It is also the largest animal living in Asia. Moreover, this type usually lives in Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Indochina and some parts of Indonesia. This species is in danger of extinction, according to scientists only 25,600 to 32,750 wild Asian elephants remain in the world.
10. Blue Whale
The Blue Whale is a marine mammal, believed to be the largest living animal, with a height of 33 meters and a weight exceeding 150 tons. The blue whale of the Cetacea (whales) team included in the Mysticeti (toothless whales) sub-team is spread all over the world seas except the Arctic Ocean. There are 10,000 individuals living in nature.
Cryobiology: A Hope for Endangered Creatures
In recent years, we know that many species of animals have disappeared or that their generations are about to run out. The International Commission for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Commission for the Protection of Animal Species, reports that currently, 25% of species worldwide are at risk of extinction, 24 of 26 mammal species are on the extinction border, and in the past 100 years, up to 1000 species states that it is over. Research on this subject emphasizes the need for special protection of this animal species if the total number of wild animal species cannot reach even 1000.
The name of Greek cryos (ice), bios (life) and logos (science) derived from the words of cryobiology as the basis of the cells and tissues freeze by examining a branch of science. Cryobiology, which investigates the effects of low temperature on organisms, enables us to better understand the functional properties of frozen and thawed cells. In this way, scientists can develop new methods to protect the endangered species.
Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding
In 2003, the number of pandas in the world was determined to be 1,596 and extinction warnings were made for this animal species. The Chengdu Panda Reproductive and Breeding Center in the People’s Republic of China took on the task of protecting the pandas. In this organization, the number of pandas increased by artificial insemination and the ultimate goal of protection is to ensure that the pandas return to nature.
Some experts said that the pandas were naturally in a dead-end street, desperate to breed due to their bad genes. But then the scientists determined that the main problem was the damage people cause to the bamboo tree growing at high altitudes, which is the main source of food for the pandas. These problems are solved and pandas are assisted by artificial insemination to reduce their risk of extinction.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) says that the largest number of domestic animals should be used for breeding in order to preserve the world’s resources. In order to protect the wild animal species, it is necessary to protect the area where the animals live and the environment, to create the parks of natural life, and to freeze and store the sperm and embryo as much as possible. Biotechnological methods especially applied to animals used in aquaculture, genetic progress and genetic diversity studies have been making great progress.
The hygienic acquisition, freezing, and storage of the gamete cells, a field of study of biotechnology, provides us with important information about cloning people. Furthermore, biotechnological studies that are carried out based on the knowledge that some living cells and microorganisms can withstand very low temperatures and return to their normal functions after the process of dissolving contribute to the development of this discipline.
As a result, these advances and researches in freezing stages of reproductive cells and tissues have a great importance in terms of maintaining genetic diversity and progression.
Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare
Many countries recognized the declaration of animal rights and animal rights, but there is no action.
On October 15, 1978, the Universal Declaration of Animal Rights, declared at the UNESCO House in Paris;
1. All animals are born equal in life and have the same right to exist.
2. All animals have the right to be respected. A human being cannot destroy other animals. It is responsible for providing information to the service of animals. All animals have the right to respect, care and protection.
3. No animal can be mistreated or cruel. If an animal must be killed, it must be done in a moment, without suffering or intimidation.
4. All wild animals have the right to live and reproduce on land, air, and water in their natural environment. Even if it is for educational purposes, all forms of deprivation of liberty are against this right.
5. Traditionally, all animals living in the vicinity of humans have the right to live and reproduce in a harmonious way in terms of species-specific living conditions and freedom.
6. All animals that people take with them have the right to live in accordance with their natural life lengths. Abandoning an animal is cruel and inferior.
7. All working animals have the right to limit the duration and intensity of work and to increase their strength.
8. Experiments that cause physical or psychological pain to animals are against animal rights.
9. If the animal is bred for feeding, it should be looked, sheltered, transported, without suffering and without fear of death.
10. Animals cannot be exploited for the enjoyment of people, animal watching and demonstrations from animals are against animal dignity.
11. The killing of an animal without necessity is a crime against life.
12. Every act that means killing a large number of wild animals is a genocide, a crime.
13. People also should respect animal death. The scenes of violence in which the animal was killed should be prohibited in cinema and television.
14. Laws should protect animal rights, such as human rights.