What is the Capital of South Sudan?

Juba is the capital of South Sudan. Established as a trading post in the 19th century, has since become a focal point for South Sudan’s governance and economy.

Juba marked as the capital on the map of South Sudan
Juba marked as the capital on the map of South Sudan.

Juba serves as the country’s administrative and commercial hub. With a mix of modern structures and traditional markets, Juba reflects the diversity and complexities of the world’s youngest nation, which gained independence in 2011.

Where is Juba?

Pinned location of Juba, South Sudan
Pinned location of Juba, South Sudan.

Juba can be found in the southern region of South Sudan, close to the White Nile River, positioned in East-Central Africa. The city’s geographical coordinates are roughly 4.85 degrees latitude and 31.58 degrees longitude.

Juba is situated near Uganda’s border to the south. Being close to the White Nile River, Juba plays a significant role in this vital water route, which extends northwards through Sudan and into Egypt. In South Sudan, the city is central among the southern states and is an essential administrative nexus.

History of Juba

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Juba was a minor trading post and port along the White Nile. During this period, it was under the control of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, a condominium between the United Kingdom and Egypt.

The area was mainly used for trade expeditions and was a critical point for moving goods and people along the Nile.

After Sudan’s independence in 1956, Juba was caught in national politics and conflict. The First and Second Sudanese Civil Wars deeply affected the city.

The wars were rooted in ethnic and regional tensions, resulting in significant loss of life and infrastructure in Juba. During these turbulent years, the city remained underdeveloped, with limited access to essential services like healthcare and education.

The Parliament of South Sudan in Juba, the seat of governance
The Parliament of South Sudan in Juba, the seat of governance.

In 2005, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed between the Sudanese government and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement, ending the Second Sudanese Civil War. Juba was a focal point during the peace talks and subsequent efforts to maintain stability.

The CPA laid the groundwork for a future referendum on South Sudan’s independence and helped elevate Juba’s significance as it was poised to become the capital of a new nation.

On July 9, 2011, Juba became the capital of the newly independent South Sudan. The city was thrust into the global spotlight as it assumed its role as the administrative and governmental center of the new nation.

Since then, Juba has been engaged in the monumental task of governance and nation-building. Buildings to house government institutions were constructed, and the city began taking on its role as the face of the new country.

In the years following independence, Juba has grappled with the enormous challenges of being a young capital. Issues of governance, political instability, and ongoing internal conflicts have strained its development.

Nevertheless, Juba continues to be the epicenter of South Sudan’s efforts to build a stable and prosperous nation.

Features of Juba

Juba is a city that encapsulates both challenges and opportunities. As the capital of the world’s youngest country, it carries an immense responsibility as the seat of government and administration.

Juba is bustling with activity, with markets and businesses serving as the lifeline for a population looking toward the future. The presence of international organizations and diplomatic missions adds to its importance on the global stage.

Geography and Climate

The cityscape of Juba
The cityscape of Juba

Juba lies on a flat plain, which makes it susceptible to flooding during the rainy season. A tropical wet and dry climate characterizes the city. The average temperature varies between 23 °C (73 °F) and 38 °C (100 °F) throughout the year. The rainy season typically spans from April to November, while the dry season occurs from December to March.


Konyo Konyo Market, a bustling epicenter of trade and culture
Konyo Konyo Market, a bustling epicenter of trade and culture that provides a window into the daily life and commerce of Juba’s residents.

Juba is a diverse city, with people from various ethnic backgrounds, such as the Dinka, Nuer, and Bari. Due to internal displacement and the allure of urban opportunities, the city has seen significant population growth in recent years.

Estimates suggest Juba has a population of over 525,000. This diversity brings a rich cultural tapestry but also challenges social cohesion and integration.


International Airport in Juba, a crucial gateway for business and aid
International Airport in Juba, a crucial gateway for business and aid, plays an indispensable role in South Sudan’s economy and global connectivity.

Juba’s economy is in a formative stage, grappling with the challenges of a developing nation. The city has a burgeoning market scene that serves as the backbone of local commerce. With its role as the administrative center of South Sudan, government-related activities also contribute significantly to the local economy.

International organizations and NGOs bring in foreign capital and employment opportunities. However, economic development is hampered by ongoing political instability and the need for robust infrastructure. Industries such as construction and retail are gradually expanding, but the city’s financial health remains fragile.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is it safe to visit Juba?

It is currently unsafe to visit due to armed conflicts, inter-ethnic violence, and high levels of violent crime like carjackings, shootings, and kidnappings. Travel advisories strongly recommend avoiding all travel to the area.

What is the best time of year to visit, considering the climate?

The dry season from November to April is generally considered the most comfortable time to visit climate-wise, but safety concerns currently override this factor.

Are there any local customs or etiquettes I should be aware of?

Traditional greetings are important, and it’s customary to inquire about one’s health and family when meeting. Public behavior should be respectful.

What is the local food like?

The city’s traditional cuisine is influenced by the diverse ethnic groups that inhabit the area and its historical ties to East Africa and the Middle East.

Staple foods typically include grains like sorghum and maize, complemented by vegetables and meats.

Final Thoughts

While Juba may not be a traditional tourist destination, the city is a compelling backdrop for understanding this emerging country’s challenges and opportunities.

Whether it’s worth visiting depends on your interests and circumstances; if you’re intrigued by the dynamics of a nation in the making, Juba could be an enlightening experience.

However, given the current safety concerns and limited tourist amenities, weighing these factors carefully before planning a visit is essential.

Image Sources and Copyright Information
  • Map of South Sudan Highlighting Capital Juba: © Peter Hermes Furian/Shutterstock
  • Map Pin on Juba Location: © FellowNeko/Shutterstock
  • Government Building in Juba with Vehicles Parked Outside: © BBC World Service/Flickr
  • Colorful Sky Over Juba Cityscape: © Lomoraronald/Wikimedia | CC BY-SA 4.0 International
  • Bustling Market Scene with Colorful Umbrellas and Shoppers: © Vlad Karavaev/Shutterstock
  • Juba International Airport with Airplanes on Tarmac: © Frontpage/Shutterstock