What is the Capital of Saudi Arabia?

Riyadh is the capital of Saudi Arabia. Riyadh is a central hub for finance, business, and commerce, hosting the headquarters of many multinational corporations.

Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia
Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia.

Riyadh is culturally significant, boasting a rich history that dates back to the pre-Islamic era, features a blend of modern and traditional architecture, and is home to several museums.

Where is Riyadh?

Location of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and its neighboring countries.
Location of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and its neighboring countries.

Riyadh is located on the Arabian Peninsula in the central part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The city lies in the Najd region, a large plateau in the country’s center. The specific coordinates are approximately 24.7136 °N latitude and 46.6753 °E longitude.

Riyadh is surrounded by desert. Despite its arid surroundings, Riyadh has grown into a thriving metropolis thanks to the country’s wealth from oil and subsequent diversification efforts.

Being centrally located, Riyadh is equidistant from the Red Sea to the west and the Persian Gulf to the east, providing the city strategic importance in the region. It is well connected with other parts of the country and the world through King Khalid International Airport.

History of Riyadh

The history of Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, is an extensive narrative that dates back to the 3rd millennium BC when several ancient civilizations populated the Arabian Peninsula.

The earliest known settlement in the area of present-day Riyadh was Hajr, an integral stop on the caravan route across the Arabian Peninsula.

Hajr was the capital of the Al-Yamamah kingdom, an important chapter in the history of the Arabian Peninsula, known for being an oasis town with dates as a major product. The Banu Hanifa tribe inhabited Hajr, celebrated for its beauty and plentiful water. However, Hajr experienced a decline around the 5th century AD and was eventually deserted.

Streets of Riyadh with a mosque in the background
Old streets of Riyadh with a mosque in the background.

After its initial desertion, Hajr’s ruins were renamed Riyadh, meaning ‘gardens,’ and remained a small but strategically situated city. The city’s modern history started in the 18th century with the First Saudi State’s emergence. In the early 19th century, the region was seized by this state but was later destroyed by the Ottoman Empire. Following a turbulent period, the Saudis recaptured Riyadh in 1824, leading to the establishment of the Second Saudi State, with Riyadh as its capital under Turki ibn Abdullah Al Saud’s rule.

A critical moment in Riyadh’s history occurred in 1902 when Abdulaziz Ibn Saud captured the city from the rival Al Rashid family. Over the following years, Ibn Saud unified the Arabian Peninsula’s tribes and regions under his rule, leading to the official proclamation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, with Riyadh as its capital.

The late 1930s brought about a massive change with the discovery of oil, resulting in substantial investment in infrastructure and modernization. The 1950s and 1960s saw key infrastructure projects that paved the way for modern Riyadh, including the Riyadh Air Base, King Saud University, hospitals, roads, schools, and other public services.

The Palm Mosque, located near the King Saud University
The Palm Mosque, located near the King Saud University.

The oil boom of the 1970s accelerated Riyadh’s development. The population increased, and the city began to expand in all directions. New districts were created, modern buildings were erected, and existing infrastructure was improved. The first significant skyscrapers were built during this period, changing the city’s skyline.

By the turn of the 21st century, Riyadh had transformed into a global city. The establishment of the King Abdullah Financial District, the construction of the Riyadh Metro, and ongoing efforts to develop Riyadh into an intelligent city are all part of the government’s vision to diversify the economy and reduce its reliance on oil.

Riyadh had emerged as a dynamic hub for commerce and culture. The city hosts the headquarters of many multinational corporations and is a major player in the global economy. It has several universities, hospitals, museums, and other cultural and scientific institutions. Iconic landmarks include the Kingdom Centre, the Al Faisaliyah Center, and the King Abdulaziz Library.

Diriyah, a historical city located on the outskirts of Riyadh
Diriyah, a historical city located on the outskirts of Riyadh.

Despite the rapid modernization, Riyadh has retained elements of its historical charm. For example, the Masmak Fortress, the Murabba Palace, and the Ad Diriyah area provide glimpses into the city’s past. Riyadh also hosts the Janadriyah Festival, a national festival celebrating Saudi culture and heritage.

In recent years, Saudi Arabia has launched ambitious plans to further develop Riyadh and other parts of the country under the Vision 2030 initiative. This includes major infrastructure projects, economic diversification efforts, and endeavors to boost tourism and entertainment.

Features of Riyadh

Riyadh is a vibrant metropolis that seamlessly blends the old and the new. It’s an architectural wonder, where the stark contrast between the sweeping desert landscape and the skyline punctuated by gleaming skyscrapers makes for an impressive sight.

Geography and Climate

Skyline of modern architecture in Riyadh.
Skyline of modern architecture in Riyadh.

Riyadh is characterized by its flat to gently sloping terrain due to its location on the Arabian Peninsula’s central plateau, known as the Najd. The area surrounding the city is barren, reflecting its desert environment. Despite this, the city has numerous parks and green spaces contrasting with the arid landscape, thanks to modern irrigation methods.

As for climate, Riyadh has a hot desert climate, typical of most parts of the Arabian Peninsula. The city experiences extreme heat during the summer, with temperatures often exceeding 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit).

Between December and February, the winter months are relatively mild and pleasant, with daytime temperatures averaging around 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit). Riyadh is known for its scant rainfall, which is usually limited to the winter and spring months.


Riyadh saudi arabia january 27 2018: the king abdulaziz
Locals celebrating the King Abdulaziz Camel Festival.

Riyadh has over 7 million people, making it the largest city in Saudi Arabia. This includes many expatriates who have moved to the city for work opportunities, contributing to its diversity.

The city is primarily Arab, with a significant proportion of the population comprising expatriates from South Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa, and other parts of the Middle East. Islam is the dominant religion, and Arabic is the official language, although English is widely spoken due to the international nature of the city’s business environment.


The King Abdullah Financial District (KAFD)
The King Abdullah Financial District (KAFD), a major urban development project and financial center named after King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud.

Riyadh is the economic hub of Saudi Arabia and has a diverse economy. It’s a vital center for industrial activity, with factories in the city producing goods like building materials, processed food, textiles, and furniture.

However, the city is best known as a center for finance and services. Riyadh is home to the Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority, the Saudi Stock Exchange (Tadawul), and numerous local and international banks. The King Abdullah Financial District, an area of high-rise buildings and state-of-the-art facilities, reflects the city’s standing in the financial world.

In recent years, Riyadh has been working towards diversifying its economy as part of the Saudi Vision 2030 initiative. This includes promoting sectors like entertainment, tourism, and technology. Several large-scale infrastructure projects are underway to improve the city’s facilities and attract further investment.

Things to Do and Places to See in Riyadh

In Riyadh, a cornucopia of activities and sightseeing opportunities await visitors. Let’s explore some of the most sought-after attractions and points of interest in this vibrant city:

1. Visit the National Museum of Saudi Arabia

The National Museum of Saudi Arabia, part of the King Abdulaziz Historical Center
The National Museum of Saudi Arabia, part of the King Abdulaziz Historical Center.

The National Museum of Saudi Arabia is an important cultural institution located in Riyadh. Opened in 1999, the museum covers the history, culture, and art of Saudi Arabia. Its permanent collection spans eight large halls, each representing a different era of the region’s history.

The museum’s exhibits include archaeological artifacts, interactive displays, and models. These exhibits aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the Arabian Peninsula’s history, from its geological formation millions of years ago to the modern day. They also touch upon the region’s role as the birthplace of Islam.

2. Explore the Masmak Castle

The historic Al Masmak Castle
The historic Al Masmak Castle, built around 1865, played a pivotal role in the country’s history, particularly during the formation of the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The Masmak Fortress, known as Al-Masmak Palace, is a significant historic site. The fortress is best known for the event on January 14, 1902, when the young Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, who would later become the first king of Saudi Arabia, led a daring raid to retake Riyadh from the rival Al Rashid clan. This marked a significant step in eventually consolidating disparate territories into the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The Masmak Fortress is a classic example of the traditional Najdi architectural style, characterized by thick mud-brick walls designed to withstand the harsh desert climate. The complex includes a mosque, residential areas, and a large open courtyard.

3. Take a stroll in King Abdullah Park

King Abdullah Park, named after King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
King Abdullah Park, named after King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud.

The park features beautifully landscaped gardens, children’s play areas, walking paths, and water fountains. It’s a popular spot for families and people of all ages to enjoy outdoor activities, picnics, and strolls. The park’s layout is quite spacious, giving visitors plenty of room to relax and enjoy the surroundings.

One of the highlights of King Abdullah Park is its dancing water fountains, which provide a spectacular, particularly beautiful display at night. These shows are synchronized with music and colorful lights, offering a delightful spectacle for visitors.

In addition to its outdoor attractions, the park hosts cultural events and other activities throughout the year, contributing to the vibrant local community and cultural scene.

4. Experience shopping at Souq Al Zal

The Souq Al Zal, providing a captivating experience of Saudi Arabian culture and tradition
The Souq Al Zal, providing a captivating experience of Saudi Arabian culture and tradition.

Souq Al Zal is a traditional Saudi Arabian market located in Riyadh, the country’s capital. Also known as the Rug Souq, this market is famous for its wide array of beautiful, hand-woven Arabian carpets and rugs.

The Souq is housed in a traditional mud-brick building reminiscent of the historic architecture of the region. It is a labyrinth of stalls that sell a variety of Arabian rugs, including both new and antique pieces. The rugs available in the Souq Al Zal range from simple, inexpensive ones to intricate, high-end carpets that can cost thousands of dollars.

In addition to carpets, the market offers other items, such as traditional Saudi Arabian clothing, jewelry, handicrafts, and various souvenirs. It’s a fascinating place to wander, absorb the vibrant atmosphere, and even haggle with the vendors for a good bargain.

5. See the King Abdulaziz Historical Center

Old Mosque inside the King Abdulaziz Historical Center
Old Mosque inside the King Abdulaziz Historical Center.

The King Abdulaziz Historical Center (KAHC) is a cultural and historical site located in Riyadh. Named after the founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, King Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud, the Center is a prominent cultural institution that aims to preserve and promote the country’s heritage.

The King Abdulaziz Historical Center is an excellent destination for anyone interested in learning about Saudi Arabian history and culture. The combination of educational, cultural, and recreational facilities makes it a popular spot for local residents and tourists.

6. Visit the King Fahd National Library

King Fahd National Library, one of the most important cultural institutions in Saudi Arabia
King Fahd National Library, one of the most important cultural institutions in Saudi Arabia, is named after the late King Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud.

The library was established to collect, preserve, and provide access to various materials related to Saudi Arabia’s heritage, history, and culture. It holds a vast collection of books, manuscripts, documents, photographs, and maps, many rare and valuable. Its resources cover a wide range of topics, with a particular focus on the history, culture, and development of Saudi Arabia and the broader Arabian Peninsula.

The library’s architecture is also noteworthy. It’s housed in a distinctive building that combines modern architectural elements with traditional Arabian design. The building’s white facade is composed of a series of diamond-shaped cells, a design inspired by the pattern of a folded book.

7. Experience the Riyadh Zoo

Bears inside the Riyadh Zoo
Bears inside the Riyadh Zoo

The Riyadh Zoo is a significant recreational and educational destination in Riyadh’s heart. The zoo, first established in 1957, has grown considerably over the years and is the largest zoo in the country.

The zoo is home to a diverse range of animals from all over the world, including African elephants, Bengal tigers, zebras, giraffes, a variety of birds, reptiles, and many others. Each animal species has its dedicated enclosure designed to mimic its natural habitat as closely as possible. The zoo is organized into different sections based on the animals’ geographical origin.

8. Visit the Al Faisaliyah Center

The Al Faisaliyah Center Skyscraper, the first of the ultra-modern high-rise buildings to be constructed in the Saudi Arabia
Al Faisaliyah Center Skyscraper, the first of the ultra-modern high-rise buildings to be constructed in Saudi Arabia.

The Al Faisaliyah Center, located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is one of the most iconic structures in the city and is a shining example of modern Saudi Arabian architecture. Upon completion in 2000, it was the tallest building in Saudi Arabia.

The design of the Al Faisaliyah Center is distinct and eye-catching. The tower, rising 267 meters high, is topped by a golden glass-globe summit inspired by a traditional Arabic geometric form, a design reminiscent of a pointed desert plant. The plan was created by British architect Norman Foster and his team.

9. Wander around Salam Park

The Salam Park in Riyadh, spread over 99 hectares, it's a popular destination for locals and tourists
The Salam Park in Riyadh, spread over 99 hectares, it’s a popular destination for locals and tourists.

A green oasis in the city featuring beautiful gardens, a lake, and playgrounds.Salam Park is a lovely public park located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Opened in 2003, it was one of the first large-scale public parks in the city.

Salam Park is known for its lush lawns, various plants, and beautifully landscaped areas. It’s an excellent place for a stroll or a picnic. The park features several artificial lakes with a total surface area of 33,000 square meters. You can rent paddle boats to explore the lakes or enjoy the view from the shore.

10. Wadi Namar Waterfall

Wadi Nemar, known for its lake, dam, and the impressive waterfall that cascades from the dam
Wadi Nemar, known for its lake, dam, and the impressive waterfall that cascades from the dam – a rare sight in this desert nation.

Wadi Namar, or Valley Namar, is a picturesque location in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This beautiful area, located near the neighborhood of Diriyah, is.

The Wadi Namar Dam was built to collect rainwater and is a prime spot for picnicking and sightseeing. The dam created an artificial lake, which has become a home for birds and a spot for fishing enthusiasts. The waterfall, created due to the dam, is an unusual and striking feature in the arid surroundings.

The Wadi Namar Park near the lake offers beautifully landscaped gardens and picnic areas with a view of the lake and the waterfall. It’s a popular spot for family outings and nature photography. The park also has walking and cycling tracks, play areas for kids, and small shops and cafés.

11. Visit the King Abdulaziz Mosque

King Abdulaziz Grand Mosque, initially built in 1908 during the reign of Imam Abdulrahman Al Faisal
King Abdulaziz Grand Mosque, initially built in 1908 during the reign of Imam Abdulrahman Al Faisal and was reconstructed and expanded in 1993.

The King Abdulaziz Mosque, also known as Imam Turki bin Abdullah Grand Mosque, is one of Riyadh’s largest and oldest mosques. The mosque is named after King Abdulaziz Al Saud, the founder of the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The mosque was The current building can accommodate up to 17,000 worshippers, with separate sections for men and women.

The King Abdulaziz Mosque is known for its striking architecture. It features a combination of traditional Arabian and modern architectural elements. The mosque’s design includes large domes, tall minarets, intricate decorations, and a vast courtyard. The mosque is adorned with beautiful chandeliers, carvings, and calligraphy.

12. Explore Al-Murabba Palace

Al-Murabba Palace, built by King Abdulaziz, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia
Al-Murabba Palace, built by King Abdulaziz, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia, in the 1930s and 1940s.

The palace is part of the giant King Abdulaziz Historical Center, including the National Museum, among other facilities. The palace itself has been turned into a museum known as the King Abdulaziz Memorial Hall, which provides insights into royal life during the early days of the kingdom.

The name “Al-Murabba” refers to the square shape of the palace’s grounds. The complex includes several buildings constructed in the traditional Najdi architectural style, characterized by simple lines, minimal ornamentation, and mud-brick construction. Notably, the palace consists of a large courtyard and a watchtower.

Inside, the museum displays various exhibits related to the life and times of King Abdulaziz. There are historic photographs, personal belongings, and other artifacts. The palace also housed the kingdom’s first lift (elevator), which is still present.

13. See the Kingdom Centre Tower

Riyadh saudi arabia nov 27 2021 the kingdom centre in
The Kingdom Centre Tower, also known as Al-Mamlaka Tower, is a prominent landmark that stands 302.3 meters (992 feet) tall, which makes it one of the country’s tallest skyscrapers.

The Kingdom Centre Tower is a multi-use building with a shopping mall, a hotel, offices, and apartments. It’s home to the Four Seasons Hotel Riyadh and a high-end shopping mall with international and local retailers. There are also numerous restaurants and cafes in the tower.

One of the most distinct features of the Kingdom Centre Tower is its unique architectural design. The tower is built in a sleek, modern style and features a large elliptical opening at the top, giving it a striking and instantly recognizable silhouette.

At the top of the tower, you’ll find the Sky Bridge, an observation deck that offers spectacular panoramic views of Riyadh. The Sky Bridge is a must-visit for any visitor to the city, particularly at sunset when the pictures can be truly breathtaking.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the best time to visit Riyadh?

The best time to visit Riyadh is during the cooler months, from November to March when the temperatures are milder and outdoor activities are more enjoyable.

Is it safe to visit Riyadh?

Riyadh is generally considered safe for tourists. However, staying updated with current travel advisories and taking standard travel precautions is always recommended.

What is traditional food and cuisine like in Riyadh?

Riyadh’s traditional cuisine is a rich blend of Middle Eastern flavors, with dishes often based on rice, meat (particularly lamb and chicken), and vegetables. Dates, yogurt, and flatbreads are also staples.

What’s a must-try dish/food in Riyadh?

Kabsa, a fragrant rice dish cooked with meat (often chicken or lamb) and a mixture of spices, is a must-try in Riyadh. Mutabbaq, a kind of stuffed pancake, is also popular.

What souvenirs can I bring home from Riyadh?

Traditional souvenirs from Riyadh include locally made handicrafts, gold and silver jewelry, traditional clothing, spices, and dates.

How can I get around in Riyadh?

Riyadh has an extensive road network and public transportation options, including buses and a metro system. Taxis and ride-hailing services are also readily available.

Is it expensive to visit Riyadh?

The cost of visiting Riyadh can vary widely depending on your lifestyle and preferences. Luxury accommodations and dining can be expensive, but more budget-friendly options are available.

Which currencies are accepted in Riyadh?

The Saudi Riyal is the official currency of Saudi Arabia and is accepted everywhere in Riyadh. Credit and debit cards are also widely accepted.

Are locals friendly in Riyadh?

Saudi people are generally known for their hospitality and friendliness. However, like in any city, individual experiences may vary.

Which cultural customs should I be aware of when visiting Riyadh?

Saudi Arabia is a conservative country with deep-rooted Islamic traditions. Visitors should dress modestly, avoid public displays of affection, and respect local customs, especially during the holy month of Ramadan.

Final Thoughts

Riyadh offers a unique blend of the traditional and the modern. Its rich history, diverse culture, thriving economy, and rapid development make it a fascinating destination for business and leisure travelers.

From exploring ancient forts and shopping in traditional markets to marveling at stunning skyscrapers and indulging in luxurious dining, there’s truly something for everyone in Riyadh.

Despite its rapid modernization, the city maintains a solid connection to its past, offering visitors an authentic insight into Saudi traditions and way of life. With its many layers to explore and discover, Riyadh is undoubtedly a destination worth visiting.

Image Sources and Copyright Information
  • image-11: © Mappr
  • Location Pin on Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Map: © hyotographics/Shutterstock
  • Desert Cityscape with Minaret in Riyadh: © Moatassem/Shutterstock
  • Palm Tree and Mosque at King Saud University: © Basil Al Bayati/Wikimedia | CC0 1.0 Universal
  • Sunset over Diriyah Adobe Structures in Riyadh: © Ziad Khayat/Shutterstock
  • Sunset Over Riyadh Skyline: © Mohammed younos/Shutterstock
  • Festival Gathering in Riyadh: © Volodymyr Dvornyk/Shutterstock
  • Dusk View of King Abdullah Financial District Skyscrapers: © Mohammed younos/Shutterstock
  • Exterior View of the National Museum of Saudi Arabia: © Crystal Eye Studio/Shutterstock
  • Masmak Fortress at Twilight: © Zaki Ghawas/Shutterstock
  • Pathway and Greenery at King Abdullah Park: © Volodymyr Dvornyk/Shutterstock
  • Indoor Market Alley with Shops and Visitors: © Francisco Anzola/Wikimedia | CC BY 2.0 Generic
  • Sunny Courtyard of Traditional Mosque Architecture: © Moatassem/Shutterstock
  • Night View of King Fahd National Library Exterior: © Moatassem/Shutterstock
  • Bears at Riyadh Zoo: © Moatassem/Shutterstock
  • Al Faisaliyah Center Tower Amidst Palm Trees: © Muttaz/Shutterstock
  • Aerial View of Salam Park in Riyadh: © adznano3/Shutterstock
  • Wadi Nemar Waterfall Reflection at Dusk: © Farouk Mousa/Shutterstock
  • King Abdulaziz Grand Mosque under clear skies: © Volodymyr Dvornyk/Shutterstock
  • Exterior view of Al Murabba Palace: © Muttaz/Shutterstock
  • Kingdom Centre Tower at Night: © Logen Wang/Shutterstock